International Journal of Immunology is a peer-reviewed open access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of immunology. Immunology is a diverse and growing discipline that can be defined as the study of the tissues, cells and molecules involved in host defense mechanisms. Immunologists attempt to understand how the immune system develops, how the body defends itself against disease, and what happens when it all goes wrong. Priority is given to work that provides fundamental insight into the workings of the immune system. Areas covered include, but are not limited to, innate immunity and inflammation; development; immune receptors, signaling and apoptosis; antigen presentation; gene regulation and recombination; cellular and systemic immunity; vaccines; immune tolerance; autoimmunity and tumor immunology, microbial immunopathology; and transplantation.

The great advances in immunology in recent years make this field one of the most dynamic and rapidly growing in biological sciences. This remarkable growth is stimulated by the influx of investigators from other disciplines such as biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, microbiology, virology and various medical disciplines. These disciplines are so well interlinked with immunology that no immunological challenge can now be properly addressed without sophisticated applications of expertise of combinations of these disciplines. As a consequence, immunology has become a vast and rich field encompassing discoveries and outlooks that range from the highly clinical to the highly molecular. Although such perspectives may appear diverse, they are, in fact, extremely interdependent. The journal seeks to present a balanced overview of contemporary immunology and melds together different aspects of molecular immunology, immunobiology and clinical immunology.

Immunology is the branch of biomedical science that deals with the response of an organism to antigenic challenge and its recognition of what is self and what is not. It deals with the defense mechanisms including all physical, chemical and biological properties of the organism that help it to combat its susceptibility to foreign organisms, material, etc

Immunology has its origins in the study of how the body protects itself against infectious diseases caused by microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi, and also parasitic organisms, such as helminth worms. Research / review articles deals with, among other things, the physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health and disease; malfunctions of the immune system in immunological disorders (autoimmune diseases, hypersensitivities, immune deficiency, transplant rejection); the physical, chemical and physiological characteristics of the components of the immune system in vitro, in situ, and in vivo are of prime interest.




Rashmi Kaul

Associate Professor


Rashmi Kaul received her Ph.D. (Microbiology andImmunology) from the Delhi University, India (1989). Afterher postdoctoral training in Immunology at the University ofTexas Medical Branch in Galveston, Texas, she joined theObstetrics and Gynecology Department at the University ofMinnesota as an Assistant Professor of Immunology andPediatric Gastroenterology. She currently serves as AssociateProfessor of Immunology at the Oklahoma State University -

Center for Health Sciences in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Dr. Kaul’sresearch involves understanding the hormonal regulation ofinflammation and immunity during developmentof infectious disease pathogenesis and how these responsesare influenced by aging and menopause. She has published

studies on gender related hormonal regulation in hepatitis andliver cirrhosis and development of cancer. She with her group was the first ones to show the presence of microbiome in the normal human livers and its impact on immune homeostasis in the human liver. She and her group have won several awards and have a number of patents. She currently serves as an editorial board member of several scientific journals. To understand infectious disease pathogenesis, her laboratory utilizesanimal models, cell culture models, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. The long term goal of her research isto understand gender based differences in regulation of immune responses toinfectious disease pathogens that may result in chronic disease, autoimmunity and/or cancer.

Relevant Literature (Selected):


  1. Iyer JK, Dickey A, Rouhani P, Kaul A, Govindaraju N, Singh RN and Kaul R. Nanodiamonds facilitate killing of intracellular uropathogenic Ecoli in an in vitro model of urinary tract infection pathogenesis.PLoS ONE 13(1): e019102; 2018
  2. Iyer JK,Kalra M, Kaul A, Payton ME, Kaul R. Estrogen Receptor(ER) expression in chronic Hepatitis C and Hepatocellular Carcinoma pathogenesis.World Journal of Gastroenterology, October7, 23(37):6802-6816, 2017
  3. Parvaneh Rouhani, Nirmal Govindaraju, Janaki K Iyer, Rashmi Kaul, Anil Kaul, Raj .N Singh. Purification, Functionalization and Characterization of Nanodiamond to Serve as a Platform for Amoxicillin Delivery. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2016 Jun; 63:323-32. doi: 10.1016/j.msec.2016.02.075. Epub 2016 Feb 27
  4. Rouhani, P., Salahinejad, E., Kaul, R., Vashaee, D., & Tayebi, L. Nanostructured zirconium titanate fibers prepared by particulate sol-gel and cellulose templating techniques. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 568, 102-105. (2013) DOI: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2013.03.142
  5. Singh R, Bullard J, Kalra M, Assefa S, Kaul AK, Vonfeldt K, Strom SC, Conrad RS,Sharp HL, Kaul R. Status of Bacterial colonization, Toll-like receptor expression and Nuclear Factor-kappa B activation in Normal and Diseased Human Livers. Clin Immunol,Jan;138(1):41-9, 2011
  6. S Assefa, JT Curtis, S Sethi, RL Davis, Y Chen and R Kaul. Inorganic mercury exposure in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) alters the expression of toll-like receptor 4 andactivates inflammatory pathways in the liver in a sex-specific manner. Hum Exp Toxicol.May 16, 2011
  7. Kalra Mamta,, Jary Mayes, Senait Assefa, Anil K Kaul, Rashmi Kaul. Role of sex steroid receptors in pathobiology of hepatocellular carcinoma. World Journal of Gastroenterology; 14(39):5945-61, 2008.
  8. Singh R, Kaul R, Kaul A, Khan K. A comparative review of HLA associations with hepatitis B and C viral infections across global populations. World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol.13 (12):1770-1787, 2007.