International Journal of Immunology is a peer-reviewed open access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of immunology. Immunology is a diverse and growing discipline that can be defined as the study of the tissues, cells and molecules involved in host defense mechanisms. Immunologists attempt to understand how the immune system develops, how the body defends itself against disease, and what happens when it all goes wrong. Priority is given to work that provides fundamental insight into the workings of the immune system. Areas covered include, but are not limited to, innate immunity and inflammation; development; immune receptors, signaling and apoptosis; antigen presentation; gene regulation and recombination; cellular and systemic immunity; vaccines; immune tolerance; autoimmunity and tumor immunology, microbial immunopathology; and transplantation.

The great advances in immunology in recent years make this field one of the most dynamic and rapidly growing in biological sciences. This remarkable growth is stimulated by the influx of investigators from other disciplines such as biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, microbiology, virology and various medical disciplines. These disciplines are so well interlinked with immunology that no immunological challenge can now be properly addressed without sophisticated applications of expertise of combinations of these disciplines. As a consequence, immunology has become a vast and rich field encompassing discoveries and outlooks that range from the highly clinical to the highly molecular. Although such perspectives may appear diverse, they are, in fact, extremely interdependent. The journal seeks to present a balanced overview of contemporary immunology and melds together different aspects of molecular immunology, immunobiology and clinical immunology.

Immunology is the branch of biomedical science that deals with the response of an organism to antigenic challenge and its recognition of what is self and what is not. It deals with the defense mechanisms including all physical, chemical and biological properties of the organism that help it to combat its susceptibility to foreign organisms, material, etc

Immunology has its origins in the study of how the body protects itself against infectious diseases caused by microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi, and also parasitic organisms, such as helminth worms. Research / review articles deals with, among other things, the physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health and disease; malfunctions of the immune system in immunological disorders (autoimmune diseases, hypersensitivities, immune deficiency, transplant rejection); the physical, chemical and physiological characteristics of the components of the immune system in vitro, in situ, and in vivo are of prime interest.




Shunbin Ning

Associate Professor







Wuhan University, China



Cell Biology

Wuhan University, China



Cell Biology, Genetics

UNC Chapel Hill



Viral Oncology & Immunology

UNC Chapel Hill

Research Associate


Viral Oncology & Immunology

UNC Chapel Hill

Research Assistant Professor


Viral Oncology & Immunology

Viruses contribute to more than 20% of all cancers worldwide. These virally induced malignant diseases are the leading cause of death in immunocompromised individuals. As the first identified oncovirus, Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV/HHV4) is associated with a variety of lymphomas and carcinomas. EBV, along with Kaposi’s sarcoma- associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and human papillomavirus (HPV), is causally involved in AIDS-related malignancies (ARLs). ARLs such as primary cerebral lymphoma, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), are most frequently associated with EBV latent infection. EBV is also the etiological pathogen of Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL), Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and infectious mononucleosis in immunocompetent individuals. Virus-associated lymphomas are often difficult to treat, due to their aggression (i.e. BL), the inadequate dose intensity, or exacerbation of infection in immunosuppressed patients.
I am interested in the interaction between EBV and the host innate immune system. EBV is a fascinating paradigm for studying the host-pathogen interaction. Dysregulation of EBV-specific immune response is not only important for EBV latency and oncogenesis, but also a characteristic of EBV-associated autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

03/2002-03/2007 Postdoctoral Fellow, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC
03/2007-03/2009 Research Associate, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC
03/2009-12/2009 Research Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC
12/2009-05/2014 Tenure-Track Assistant Professor, Department of Medicine and Department of Cell Biology, Miller School of Medicine, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami, Miami, FL
05/2014- Tenure-Track Assistant Professor (Tenure and Promotion in process and expected to be effective on July 1, 2018), Department of Internal Medicine, Center for Inflammation/Infectious Diseases and Immunity, Quillen College of Medicine (QCOM), East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN
02/2014- Affiliate Assistant Professor of Medical Education, College of Medicine, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL
08/2016- Adjunct Assistant Professor, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Quillen College of Medicine (QCOM), East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN

1999 Top graduate student of Wuhan University
1999 Award from Chinese Academy of Sciences
2000 Top graduate student of Wuhan University
2000 Award from Commercial Bank of China
2000 Award from the NSF of China (Beijing, China. No. 30070376. Role: co-PI)
2001 Top graduate student of Wuhan University
2001 Award from Baogang Education Fund
2001 Award from Wandai Education Fund
2001 Award from the International Foundation for Science (IFS) (Stockholm. No. C/3187-1. role: PI)
2002 Top graduate student of Wuhan University
2002 Award from Guilin Sanjin Fund
2003 Excellent PhD Thesis Award of Wuhan University
2005 Excellent PhD Thesis Award of the Ministry of Education of China
2009 Award from the ASM International Professorship Program
2011 Outstanding Service to the International Board of the ASM
2011 Outstanding Service as an Online Mentor of the ASM Minority Mentoring Program

Editorial Board
2011-2015 World Journal of Virology
2012- Journal of Oncobiomarkers
2012- Journal of Microbiology & Microbial Technology
2013- Autoimmune Diseases & Therapeutic Approaches
2014- Journal of Medical Genomics and Biomarkers
2014- Journal of Cancer Biology & Treatment
2015- Journal of Infectious Diseases and Treatment
2017- Herpesviridae (eBook).
2017- Annals of Clinical Virology

Other Experience and Professional Memberships:
2006- EBV Association membership
2008- ASM (American Society for Microbiology) membership
2010- AAI (American Association of Immunologists) membership
2010-2015 ICIS (International Cytokine & Interferon Society) membership
2010-2012 AACR (American Association for Cancer Research) membership
2012- ASH (American Society of Hematology) membership
2011-2013 ASM International Fellowships and Professorships Review Committee
2018 Immune USA leading committee member and session co-Chair. Las Vegas.

1. Wang L, Howell M, McPeak B, Riggs K, Kohne C, Yohanon J.-U., Foxler DE, Sharp TV, Moorman JP, Yao ZQ, Ning S. LIMD1 is induced by and required for LMP1 signaling, and protects EBV-transformed cells from DNA damage-induced cell death. Oncotarget. 2018. In press. DOI:
2. Zhao J, Dang X, Zhang P, Nguyan L, Cao D, Wang L, Wu X, Morrison Z, Zhang Y, Jia Z, Xie Q, Wang L, Ning S, El Gazzar M, Moorman J, Yao Z. Insufficiency of DNA repair enzyme ATM promotes naïve CD4 T cell loss in chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Cell Discovery. In press
3. Ning S. Wang L*. Identification of PP1 as the First Phosphatase for IRF7. Journal of Cell Signaling. 2017. 2: 146. Full-text PDF.
4. Zhou J*, Yang X*, Ning S*, Wang L, Wang K, Zhang Y, Yuan F, Li F, Zhuo D, Tang L, Zhuo D. Identification of KANSARL as the First Cancer Predisposition Fusion Gene Specific to the Population of European Ancestry Origin. Oncotarget. 2017. 8:50594-50607 PMCID: PMC5584173 (Highlighted at RNA-Seq blog). * Contributed equally. * Contributed equally to this project
5. Wang L, Wang Y, Zhao J, Ren J, Hall KH, Moorman JP, Yao ZQ, Ning S*. LUBAC modulates LMP1 activation of NFκB and IRF7. Journal of Virology. 2017. 91(4): e1138-16. PMID: 27903798
6. Wang L, Ren J, Li G, Moorman JP, Yao ZQ, Ning S. LMP1 Signaling Pathway Activates IRF4 in Latent EBV Infection and A Positive Circuit between PI3K and Src Is Required. Oncogene. 2017. 36(16):2265-2274. PMID: 27819673
7. Ren JP, Wang L, Zhao J, Wang L, Ning S, El Gazzar M, Moorman JP, Yao ZQ. Decline of miR-124 in myeloid cells promotes regulatory T-cell development in hepatitis C virus infection. Immunology. 2017. 150(2):213-220. PMID: 27753084
8. Wang L, Zhao J, Ren J, Hall KH, Moorman JP, Yao ZQ, Ning S*. Protein Phosphatase 1 abrogates IRF7-mediated type I IFN response in antiviral immunity. European Journal of Immunology. 2016. 46(10):2409-2419. PMID: 27469204
9. Wang L, Zhao J, Ren JP, Wu XY, Morrison ZD, Elgazzar MA, Ning S, Moorman JP, Yao ZQ. Expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells promotes differentiation of regulatory T cells in HIV-1+ individuals. AIDS. 2016. 30(10):1521-1531. PMID: 26959508.
10. Ning S, Wang L. Inactivation of type I IFN Jak-STAT pathway in EBV latency. J. Can. Biol. Treat. 2016. 3: 009. Full Text
11. Zhou Y, Li GY, Ren JP, Wang L, Zhao J, Ning S, Zhang Y, Lian JQ, Huang CX, Jia ZS, Moorman JP, Yao ZQ. Protection of CD4+ T cells from hepatitis C virus infection-associated senescence via ΔNp63-miR-181a-Sirt1 pathway. J Leukoc Biol. 2016. 100(5):1201-1211. PMID: 27354409
12. Ren J, Ying R, Cheng Y, Wang L, Elgazzar M, Li G, Ning S, Moorman J, Yao Z. HCV-induced miR146a controls SOCS1/STAT3 and cytokine expression in monocytes to promote regulatory T cell development. 2016. J Viral Hepat. 23(10):755-766. PMID: 27004559.
13. Ren, J; Zhao, J; Griffin, J ; Wang, L; Wu, X; Morrison, Z; Li, G; El Gazzar, M; Ning, S; Moorman, J; Yao, Z. Hepatitis C virus-induced myeloid-derived suppressor cells regulate T cell differentiation and function via the STAT3 pathway. Immunology. 2016. 148: 377-386. PMID: 27149428
14. Yuan F, Dutta T, Wang L, Song L, Gu L, Qian L, Benitez A, Ning S, Malhotra A, Deutscher MP, Zhang Y. Human DNA exonuclease TREX1 is also an exoribonuclease that acts on single-stranded RNA. J. Biol. Chem. 2015. 290(21):13344-53 PMID: 25855793.
15. Wang L, Yao Z, Jonathan M, Xu Y, Ning S. Gene expression profiling identifies IRF4-associated molecular signatures in hematological malignancies. PLoS One. 2014. 9(9):e106788. PMID: 25207815
16. Wang L, Ning S. IRF4 is activated through c-Src-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation in virus-transformed cells. Journal of Virology. 2013. 87(17): 9672-9679. PMID: 23804646 (Chosen for “Spotlight” by the editors)
17. Wang L, Toomey NL, Diaz LA, Walker G, Ramos JC, Barber GN, Ning S. Oncogenic IRFs provide a survival advantage for EBV- or HTLV1- transformed cells through induction of BIC expression. Journal of Virology. 2011. 85(16): 8328-8337. PMID: 21680528
18. Ning S*, Pagano J. The A20 deubiquitinase activity negatively regulates ubiquitination-mediated LMP1 activation of IRF7. J. Virol. 2010. 84(12): 1630-1638. PMID: 20392859 * Corresponding author
19. Whitehurst C, Ning S, Bentz G, Dufour F, Gershburg E, Shackelford J, Langelier Y, Pagano J. The EBV deubiquitinating enzyme, BPLF1, reduces EBV ribonucleotide reductase activity. J Virol. 2009. 83(9): 4345-4353. PMID: 19244336
20. Shunbin Ning, Alex Campos, Bryant Darnay, Gretchen Bentz, Joseph Pagano. TRAF6 and the three C-terminal lysine sites on IRF7 are required for its ubiquitination-mediated activation by the TNFR family member LMP1. Molecular and Cellular Biology. 2008. 28(20): 6536-6546. PMID: 18710948
21. Leslie Huye *, Shunbin Ning*, Michelle Kelliher, Joseph Pagano. IRF7 is activated by a viral oncoprotein through RIP-dependent ubiquitination. Molecular and Cellular Biology. 2007. 27(8): 2910-2918. (* Contributed equally to the work). PMID: 17296724
22. Shunbin Ning, Leslie Huye, Joseph Pagano. Interferon regulatory factor 5 represses expression of the EBV oncoprotein LMP1: Braking of IRF7/LMP1 regulatory circuit. Journal of Virology. 2005. 79(18): 11671-11676. PMID: 16140744
23. Hahn AM, Huye LE, Ning SB, Webster-Cyriaque J, Pagano JS. Interferon regulatory factor-7 is negatively regulated by the Epstein-Barr virus immediate-early gene, BZLF-1. Journal of Virology. 2005. 79(15): 10040-10052. PMID: 16014964
24. Shunbin Ning, Leslie Huye, Joseph Pagano. Regulation of the transcriptional activity of the IRF7 promoter by a pathway independent of interferon signalling. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2005. 280 (13): 12262-12270. PMID: 15664995
25. Shunbin Ning, Angela M.Hahn, Leslie HuyeE, Joseph Pagano. Interferon regulatory factor 7 regulates expression of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1: A regulatory circuit. Journal of Virology. 2003. 77(17): 9359-9368. PMID: 12915551
26. Ning, S. B., Guo, H. L., Wang, L., and Song, Y. C. Salt stress induces programmed cell death in prokaryotic organism Anabaena. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2002. 93: 15-28. PMID: 12067370
27. Ning, S. B., Song, Y. C., and van Damme, P. Characterization of the early stages of programmed cell death in maize root cells by using comet assay and the combination of cell electrophoresis with Annexin binding. Electrophoresis. 2002. 23: 2096-2102. PMID: 12210264
28. Ning, S. B., Wang, L., and Song, Y. C. Identification of programmed death in situ in individual plant cells in vivo using a chromosome preparation technique. Journal of Experiential Botany. 2002. 53: 651-658. PMID: 11886884
29. Shunbin Ning, Ling WANG, ZongYun Li, WeiWei Jin, YunChun Song. Apoptotic cell death and cellular surface negative charge increase in maize roots exposed to cytotoxic stresses. Annals of Botany 2001, 87 (5): 575-583.
30. Shunbin Ning, WeiWei Jin, Ling Wang and YunChun Song. Comparative genomic research between maize and rice using genomic in situ hybridization. Chinese Science Bulletin. 2001, 46 (8): 656-658.
31. Ning, S. B., Wang, L., Jin, W. W., and Song, Y. C. Expression of Dad1 in maize seed development. Developmental & Reproductive Biology. 2001. 11: 53-59.
32. Shunbin Ning, YunChun Song, Ling Wang, Yi Ding and LiHua Liu. Maize nac1 and cld genes map to chromosome arms 10L and 2S, and to 4L and 5L, respectively. Chromosome Research. 2000. 8 (3): 273.
33. Shunbin Ning, YunChun Song, Ling Wang and Yi Ding. Mammalian apoptosis-associated genes c-myc and p53 in maize: homologs and their locations. International Journal of Cytology (Cytologia). 2000. 65 (3): 261-270.
34. Shunbin Ning, YunChun Song, Ling Wang, WenHui Wei, LiHua Liu. Physical mapping of the sequences homologous to disease resistance genes myb1 and NDR1 in maize. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology. 2000. 42 (6): 605-610. Free full text PDF
35. Shunbin Ning, YunChun Song, Ling Wang, LiHua Liu. Cytotoxin-induced apoptosis in meristematic cells of maize roots. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology. 2000. 42 (7): 693-696. Free full text PDF
36. Shunbin Ning, Ling Wang, YunChun Song. Physical mapping of the genes px and cld coding peroxidase and cold-regulated protein in maize (Zea mays L.). Acta Genetica Sinica. 2000. 27 (8): 719-724.
37. Shunbin Ning, YunChun Song, Ling Wang, LiHua Liu. Morphological and biochemical evidence for cold-stress-induced apoptosis in meristematic cells of maize roots. Acta Phytophysiologica Sinica. 2000. 26 (3):189-194
38. Shunbin Ning, YunChun Song, Ling Wang, Xia Li. Salt stress-induced apoptosis in plants—A possible resistance mechanism to salt stress. Acta Biologiae Experimentalis Sinica. 2000. 33 (3): 259-266.
39. Shunbin Ning, YunChun Song, Ling Wang. Electrical characters on surface of apoptotic cell in maize roots induced by cytotoxins. Developmental & Reproductive Biology. 2000. 9 (1): 65-72.
40. Shunbin Ning, Ling Wang and YunChun Song. An ELISA assay for detection of apoptosis in plant cells. Developmental & Reproductive Biology. 2000. 9 (2): 61-68.
41. Shunbin Ning, Rui Qin. Morphological, biochemical and molecular evidences for H2O2-induced apoptosis in cells of maize roots. Journal of Hubei Institute for Nationalities. 1999. 17 (3): 1-7.
42. Shunbin Ning, YunChun Song, Ling Wang and LiHua Liu. A novel method for in situ detection of apoptotic cell death in plants. Chinese Science Bulletin. 1999. 44 (11): 1014-1017.
43. Shunbin Ning, YunChun Song, Ling Wang and LiHua Liu. Detection of the sequences homologous to p53 in maize and their chromosome localizations via hybridization in situ. Developmental & Reproductive Biology. 1999. 8 (1): 55-67.
44. Shunbin Ning, YunChun Song, Ling Wang, LiHua Liu. Detection of the sequences homologous to c-myc in maize and their chromosome locations via in situ hybridization. Chinese Journal of Cell Biology. 1999. 21 (1): 33-37.
45. Cuiying Qi, Shunbin Ning, Ling Wang, Lijia Li, YunChun Song. Expressions of human p53 and c-myc gene homologues during caryopsis development in maize. Acta Genetica Sinica. 2003. 30 (9): 797-803
46. Zongyun Li, Siluo Huang, Weiwei Jin, Shunbin Ning, YunChun Song, Lijia Li. Determination of copy number for 5S rDNA and centromeric sequence RCS2 in rice by Fiber-FISH. Chinese Science Bulletin. 2002. 47 (3): 214-217 (English version). 2001. 46(19):1641-1644. (Chinese version).
47. Xia Li, Shunbin Ning, Weiwei Jin, YunChun Song. Comparative physical localization of rice Pib gene and its linked RFLP markers in Oryza sativa, O-officinalis and Zea mays. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology. 2002. 44 (1): 49-54 Free full text PDF
48. Weiwei Jin, Shunbin Ning, Rui Qin, Siluo Huang, Dinghou Lin, YunChun Song. Detection of alien genes and analysis of their integration position in transgenic rice by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Breeding Science. 2001. 51 (4): 279-283.
49. Weiwei Jin, Zongyun Li, Shunbin Ning, Dinghou Lin, Lijia Li, YunChun Song. FISH analysis of the integration patterns in transgenic rice co-transformed by micro-projectile bombardment. Chinese Science Bulletin. 2001. 46 (23): 1965-1968. (English version). 2001. 46(15): 1281-1284. (Chinese version).
50. Jin WW, Li X, Li ZY, Ning SB, Ling DH, Song YC. Detection and analysis of alien genes in transgenic rice by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Acta Biologiae Experimentalis Sinica. 2001. 34(3):163-168.
51. Qin R, Wei WH, Jin WW, He GC, Ning SB, Yu SW, Song YC. Physical location of rice Gm-6, Pi-5(t) genes in O. officinalis with BAC-FISH. Chinese Science Bulletin. 2001. 46 (8): 659-+. (English version). 2000. 45(22): 2427-2430. (Chinese version)
52. Ling Wang, YunChun Song, Shunbin Ning, LiHua Liu. Identification of Zea diploperennis chromatins introgressed to maize via genomic in situ hybridization. Acta Botanica Sinica. 1999. 41 (12): 1264-1268.
53. Jingzhi Li, He Huang, Ming Zhou, Shunbin Ning, Xinnong Jiang, Yinxiang Peng, Kaihong Zhao. Structural basis for widely pharmacological functions of acetylsalicylic acid studied by NMR. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology International. 1999. 47(4): 665-671.
54. Ling Wang, YunChun Song, Shunbin Ning, LiHua Liu. Mapping of the two resistance genes rip and pal1 by in situ hybridization. Acta Agronomic Sinica. 1999. 25 (5): 39-43

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