International Journal of Immunology is a peer-reviewed open access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of immunology. Immunology is a diverse and growing discipline that can be defined as the study of the tissues, cells and molecules involved in host defense mechanisms. Immunologists attempt to understand how the immune system develops, how the body defends itself against disease, and what happens when it all goes wrong. Priority is given to work that provides fundamental insight into the workings of the immune system. Areas covered include, but are not limited to, innate immunity and inflammation; development; immune receptors, signaling and apoptosis; antigen presentation; gene regulation and recombination; cellular and systemic immunity; vaccines; immune tolerance; autoimmunity and tumor immunology, microbial immunopathology; and transplantation.

The great advances in immunology in recent years make this field one of the most dynamic and rapidly growing in biological sciences. This remarkable growth is stimulated by the influx of investigators from other disciplines such as biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, microbiology, virology and various medical disciplines. These disciplines are so well interlinked with immunology that no immunological challenge can now be properly addressed without sophisticated applications of expertise of combinations of these disciplines. As a consequence, immunology has become a vast and rich field encompassing discoveries and outlooks that range from the highly clinical to the highly molecular. Although such perspectives may appear diverse, they are, in fact, extremely interdependent. The journal seeks to present a balanced overview of contemporary immunology and melds together different aspects of molecular immunology, immunobiology and clinical immunology.

Immunology is the branch of biomedical science that deals with the response of an organism to antigenic challenge and its recognition of what is self and what is not. It deals with the defense mechanisms including all physical, chemical and biological properties of the organism that help it to combat its susceptibility to foreign organisms, material, etc

Immunology has its origins in the study of how the body protects itself against infectious diseases caused by microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi, and also parasitic organisms, such as helminth worms. Research / review articles deals with, among other things, the physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health and disease; malfunctions of the immune system in immunological disorders (autoimmune diseases, hypersensitivities, immune deficiency, transplant rejection); the physical, chemical and physiological characteristics of the components of the immune system in vitro, in situ, and in vivo are of prime interest.




Hongbo Hu


Hongbo Hu, Ph.D. Professor. State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University.

Dr. Hu graduated from Peking Union Medical College/Chinese Academy of Medical Science with his Ph.D. degree in Immunology in 2005, and went to Houston for his postdoctoral training, in Department of Immunology, Baylor College of Medicine and UT MD Anderson Cancer Center. In 2012, he was promoted to Instructor in MD Anderson Cancer Center. In 2015, he was recruited to State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, Sichuan University as Professor, he also has the joint appointment in the Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, West China Hospital.

Dr. Hu’s research focuses on the regulation of signaling pathways in the immune cell, especially the function of protein post-translational modification (ubiquitination) and non-classical NF-kB pathway in the development of immune system and immune response, autoimmunity and cancer immunotherapy. He has published over 30 papers in top journals, including Nature, JEM, PNAS and Cell Research etc. Dr. Hu received several awards such as Future of Science from Keystone symposiums and was selected as the Youth Talent Program. Dr. Hu’ is funded as PI by National Foundation of Nature Science and Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology.

Current Research

  • Cellular and Molecular Immunology
  • Protein Post-translational Modification
  • Cancer Immunology
  • Signaling pathways

Interested topics

  • The function of ubiquitination in immune response and immune system development
  • Immune balance and aging
  • non-canonical NF-kB pathway
  • 2018 – Top Expert Panel, Sichuan Province Government
  • 2017 – Top Expert Panel, The Health and Family Plan Committee, Sichuan Province.
  • 2016 – “1000 Talent Plan”, Sichuan province Government 
  • 2015 – Young “1000 Talent Plan”, China
  • 2013 –Future of Science Award, Keystone Symposia.
  • 2003   Best Publication Award, MD Anderson Cancer Center
  • 2002 – Best Research Award, Center of Inflammations and Cancer, MD Anderson Cancer Center
  • 2016 – Director, Committee of Cell Therapy, Sichuan Society of Cell Biology
  • 2015 – Senior Member, Chinese Society of Cell Biology
  • 2015 –Senior Member, Chinese Society of Immunology


  • Ubiquitination in Immune response, Spring-Nature Publications
  • Over 50 peer-review publications
  1. Qijie Li, Liangbin Lin, Yanli Tong, Yantong Liu, Jun Mou, Xiaodong Wang, Xiuxuan Wang, Yanqiu Gong, Yi Zhao, Yi Liu, Bo Zhong, Lunzhi Dai, Yu-quan Wei, Huiyuan Zhang, Hongbo Hu. TRIM29 negatively controls anti-viral immune response through targeting STING for degradation. Cell Discovery. 2018 4:13,
  2. Huiyuan Zhang, Haiyan S. Li, Emily J. Hillmer, Yang Zhao, Taylor T. Chrisikos, Hongbo Hu, Xiao Wu, Erika J. Thompson, Karen Clise-Dwyer, Karen A. Millerchip, Yue Wei, Nahum Puebla-Osorio, Saakshi Kaushik, Margarida A. Santos, Bin Wang, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Jing Wang, Shao-Cong Sun and Stephanie S. Watowich. Genetic rescue of lineage-balanced blood cell production reveals a crucial role for STAT3 antiinflammatory activity in hematopoiesis. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences. March 6, 2018. 115 (10) E2311-E2319
  3. Hongbo Hu, George Brittain, Jae-Hoon Chang, Nahum Puebla-Osorio, Jin Jin, Anna Zal, Yichuan, Xiao, Xuhong Cheng, Mikyoung Chang, Yang-Xin Fu, Tomasz Zal, Chengming Zhu, and Shao-Cong Sun. Otud7b controls noncanonical NF-kB activation via deubiquitination of TRAF3. Nature. 2013 Feb 21; 494(7437):371-4.
  4. Hongbo Hu, Hui Wang, Yichuan, Xiao, Jin, Jin, Jae-Hoon Chang, Qiang Zou, Xiaoping Xie,
    Xuhong Cheng, Shao-Cong Sun. Otud7b facilitates T cell activation and inflammatory response by regulating Zap70 ubiquitination. Journal of Experiment Medicine. 2016. Feb. 22. Pii :jem20151426.
  5. Hongbo Hu, Shao-Cong Sun. Ubiquitin Signaling in Immune Response. Cell Research. 2016:1-27
  6. Yichuan Xiao, Qiang Zou, Xiaoping Xie, Ting Liu, Haiyan S. Li, Zuliang Jie, Jin Jin, Hongbo Hu, Ganiraju Manyam, Li Zhang, Xuhong Cheng, Hui Wang, Isabelle Marie, David E. Levy, Stephanie S. Watowich, Shao-cong Sun. The kinase TBK1 functions in dendritic cells to regulate T cell homoestasis, autoimmunity, and antitumor immunity. Journal of Experiment Medicine. 2017. May 29. DOI:10.1084/jem.20161524.
  7. Jin Jin, Xiaoping Xie, Yichuan Xiao, Hongbo Hu, Qiang Zou, Xuhong Cheng, Shao-Cong Sun. Epigenetic regulation of IL-12/IL-23 gene expression and autoimmune response by deubiquitinase Tradid. Nature Immunology, 2016. 17(3):259-68.
  8. Jae-Hoon Chang, Hongbo Hu*, Jin Jin, Nahum Puebla-Osorio, Yichuan Xiao, Robert Brink, Stephen E Ullrich, and Shao-Cong Sun. TRAF3 regulates the effector function of regulatory T cells and humoral immune responses. Journal of Experimental Medicine. 2014 211:137-151 *Co-first author.
  9. Yanchuan Li, Hui Wang, Xiaofei Zhou, Xiaoping Xie, Xiang Chen, Zuliang Jie, Qiang Zou, Hongbo Hu, Lele Zhu, Xuhong Cheng, Hans Brightbill, Lawren Wu, Linfang Wang, Shao-Cong Sun. Cell-intrinsic role of NF-kappaB-inducing kinases in regulating T cell-medicated immune response and autoimmune response. Scientific Report. 2016, 6:22115 | DOI: 10.1038/srep22115
  10. Qiang Zou, Jin Jin, Yichuan Xiao, Xiaofei Zhou, Hongbo Hu, Xuhong Cheng, Nasser Kazimi, Stephen Ullrich, Shao-Cong Sun. T-cell intrinsic USP15 deficiency promotes excessive IFN-gamma production and an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment in MAC-induced fibrosarcoma. Cell Report. 2015, Dec 22;13(11):2470-9. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2015.11.046
  11. Qiang Zou, Jin Jin, Yichuan Xiao, Hongbo Hu, Zuliang jie, Xiaoping Xie, Yichuan Li, Xuhong Cheng, Shao-Cong Sun. T cell development involves TRAF3IP3-mediated ERK signaling in the Golgi. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 2015 Jul 27;212(8):1323-36. doi: 10.1084/jem.20150110. Epub 2015 Jul 20.
  12. Yichuan Xiao, Jin Jin, Qiang Zou, Hongbo Hu, Xuhong Cheng, Shao-Cong Sun. Peli negatively regulates type I interferon induction and antiviral immunity in the CNS. Cell&Bioscience, 2015 Jun 24;5:34. doi: 10.1186/s13578-015-0024-z.
  13. Jae-Hoon Chang, Hongbo Hu, Shao-Cong Sun. Survival and maintenance of regulatory T-cell require the kinase TAK1. Cellular and Molecular Immunology. 2015 Sep;12(5):572-9. doi: 10.1038/cmi.2015.27.
  14. Jin Jin, Yichuan Xiao, Hongbo Hu, Qiang Zou, Yanchuan Li, Yanpan Gao, Wei Ge, Xuhong Cheng and Shao-Cong Sun. Proinflammatory TLR signaling is regulated by a TRAF2-dependent
    proteolysis mechanism in macrophages. Nature Communications. 2015 Jan 7;6:5930. doi
    : 10.1038/ncomms6930
  15. Huiyuan Zhang, Hongbo Hu, Nathaniel Greeley, Jin Jin, Allison J. Matthews, Erika Ohashi, Mauricio S. Caetano, Haiyan S. Li, Xuefeng Wu, Pijus K. Mandal, John S. McMurray, Seyed Javad Moghaddam, Shao-Cong Sun, Stephanie S. Watowich. The role of STAT3 in inflammation: regulation of the ubiquitin-conjugating (E2) enzyme UBC13. Nature Communications. 2014 Dec 15;5:5798. doi: 10.1038/ncomms6798
  16. L-17 signaling. Journal of Experimental Medicine. 2014 Yichuan, Xiao, Jin Jin, Mikyoung Chang, Mako Nakaya, Hongbo Hu, Qiang Zou, Xiaofei, Zhou, George C. Brittain, Xuhong Cheng, Shao-Cong Sun. TPL2 medicates autoimmune inflammation through activation of TAK1 axis of Idoi: 10.1084/jem.20132640
  17. Qiang Zou, Jin Jin, Hongbo Hu, Haiyan Li, Simona Romano, Yichuan Xiao, Mako NAkaya, Xiaofei Zhou, Xuhong Cheng, Peirong Yang, Guillernima Lozano, Chengming Zhu, Stephanine S. Watowich, Stephen Ullrich, Shao-Cong Sun. USP15 stabilizes MDM2 to mediate cancer cell survival and inhibit the autitumor T-cell response. Nature Immunology, 2014, doi:10.1038/ni.2885
  18. Jin Jin, Hongbo Hu, Haiyuan Li, Jiayi Yu, Yichuan Xiao, Qiang Zou, Xuhong Cheng, Robyn Starr, Stephanie S. Watowich and Shao-Cong Sun. Non-canonical NF-kB pathway controls the production of type I Interferons in antiviral innate immunity. Immunity, 03/2014; 40(3):342-54.
  19. Yichuan Xiao, Jin Jin, Mikyoung Chang, Jae-Hoon Chang, Hongbo Hu, Xiaofei Zhou, George C Brittain, Xiaodong Wang, Xuhong Cheng, Shao-Cong Sun. Peli1 Promotes microglia-mediated CNS inflammation by regulating TRAF3 degradation. Nature Medicine. 2013 May;19(5):595-602.
  20. Jin Jin, Yichuan Xiao, Jae-Hoon Chang, Jiayi Yu, Hongbo Hu, George C. Brittain, Xuhong Cheng, Shao-Cong Sun. TBK1 controls IgA class switching by negatively regulating noncanonical NF-B signaling. Nature Immunology. 2012, 13(11):1101-9
  21. Jae-Hoon Chang, Yichuan Xiao, Hongbo Hu, Jin Jin, Jiayi Yu, Howard M Johnson, Shizuo Akira, Xuhong Cheng, and Shao-Cong Sun. UBC13 maintains the suppressive function of regulatory T cells and prevent their conversion into effector-like T cells. Nature Immunology. (2012) May;13(5):481-90.
  22. Xiaohong Wang, Hui-Kai Kuo, Gregory A. Dement, Ju-Pi Li, Li-Li Chiu, Hongbo Hu, Tse-Hua Tan, Downregulation of B-cell Receptor Signaling by HPK1-induced Phosphorylation and Ubiquitination of BLNK. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2012 Mar 30;287(14):11037-48
  23. Hongbo Hu, Xuefeng Wu, Wei Jin, Mikyong Chang, Xuhong Cheng, and Shao-Cong Sun. Noncanonical NF-kB regulates inducible costimulator (ICOS) ligand expression and T follicular helper cell development. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences. 2011 Aug 2; 108(31):12827-32.
  24. Shin-Heng Chiou Payam Shahi, Ryan T Wagner, Hongbo Hu, Natalia Lapteva, Mamatha Seethammagari, Shao-Cong Sun, Jonathan M Levitt and David M Spencer. The E3 ligase c-Cbl regulates dendritic cell activation. EMBO Report.(2011) 12, 971-9.
  25. Katherine L Tucker, William J. Kaiser, Angela L. Bergeron, Hongbo Hu, Jing-Fei Dong, Tse-Hua Tan, Jonathan M. Gibbins. Proteomic analysis of resting and thrombin-stimulated platelets reveals the translocation and functional relevance of HIP-55 in platelets. Proteomics, 2009, 9(18): 4340–4354
  26. Antigen specificity of Xueyan Xi Yang Guo, Hui Chen, Chunping Xu, Huiyuan Zhang, Hongbo Hu, Lianxian Cui, Denian Ba, and Wei He. gammadelta T cells depend primarily on the flanking sequences of CDR3delta.Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2009, 284:27449-55.
  27. Zhun Wang, Tie Zhang, Hongbo Hu, Huiyuan Zhang, Zhi Yang, Lianxian Cui, Wei He. Targeting solid tumors via T cell receptor complementarity-determining region 3δ in an engineered antibody. Cancer Letter.2008 272:242-252.
  28. Chunping Xu, Huiyuan Zhang, Hongbo Hu*, Hongbie He, Zhun Wang, Yong Xu, Hui Chen, Wei Cao, Sumei Zhang, Lianxian Cui, Denian Ba, Wei He. gd T cells recognize tumor cells via CDR3d region. Molecular Immunology, 2007; 44(4):302-10. *Co-first author.
  29. Hongbo Hu, Li L, Richard Y, Kao, Binbin Kou, Zhanguo Wang, Huiyuan Zhang, Zhiyong Hao, Wayne H. Tsui, Anping Ni, Lianxian Cui, Baoxing Fan, Qian Li, Manji Sun, Wei He, Gang Liu. Screening and Identification of Linear B-cell Epitopes and Entry Blocking Peptide of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Associated Coronavirus Using Synthetic Overlapping Peptide Library. Journal of Combinatorial Chemistry, 2005; 12;7(5):648-656.
  30. Huiyuan Zhang, Hongbo Hu, Xinxin Jiang, Hongbin He, Lianxian Cui, Wei He.Membrane HSP70: the molecule triggering gdT cells in the early stage of tumor-genesis. Immunological Investigations. 2005; 34:453-468.
  31. Huabiao Chen, Jinlin Hou, Xiaodong Jiang, Shiwu Ma, Minjie Meng, Baomei Wang, Minghui Zhang, Mingxia Zhang, Xiaoping Tang, Fuchun Zhang, Tao Wan, Nan Li, Yizhi Yu, Hongbo Hu, Ruifu Yang, Wei He, Xiaoning Wang, and Xuetao Cao. The response of Memory CD8+ T Cells to Severe AcuteRespiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus in RecoveredSARS Patients and Healthy Individuals. Journal of Immunology. 2005;175:591-598.


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