International Journal of Immunology is a peer-reviewed open access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of immunology. Immunology is a diverse and growing discipline that can be defined as the study of the tissues, cells and molecules involved in host defense mechanisms. Immunologists attempt to understand how the immune system develops, how the body defends itself against disease, and what happens when it all goes wrong. Priority is given to work that provides fundamental insight into the workings of the immune system. Areas covered include, but are not limited to, innate immunity and inflammation; development; immune receptors, signaling and apoptosis; antigen presentation; gene regulation and recombination; cellular and systemic immunity; vaccines; immune tolerance; autoimmunity and tumor immunology, microbial immunopathology; and transplantation.

The great advances in immunology in recent years make this field one of the most dynamic and rapidly growing in biological sciences. This remarkable growth is stimulated by the influx of investigators from other disciplines such as biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, microbiology, virology and various medical disciplines. These disciplines are so well interlinked with immunology that no immunological challenge can now be properly addressed without sophisticated applications of expertise of combinations of these disciplines. As a consequence, immunology has become a vast and rich field encompassing discoveries and outlooks that range from the highly clinical to the highly molecular. Although such perspectives may appear diverse, they are, in fact, extremely interdependent. The journal seeks to present a balanced overview of contemporary immunology and melds together different aspects of molecular immunology, immunobiology and clinical immunology.

Immunology is the branch of biomedical science that deals with the response of an organism to antigenic challenge and its recognition of what is self and what is not. It deals with the defense mechanisms including all physical, chemical and biological properties of the organism that help it to combat its susceptibility to foreign organisms, material, etc

Immunology has its origins in the study of how the body protects itself against infectious diseases caused by microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi, and also parasitic organisms, such as helminth worms. Research / review articles deals with, among other things, the physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health and disease; malfunctions of the immune system in immunological disorders (autoimmune diseases, hypersensitivities, immune deficiency, transplant rejection); the physical, chemical and physiological characteristics of the components of the immune system in vitro, in situ, and in vivo are of prime interest.





Assistant Professor

2016-17          ASAB- The Best Researcher of the Year 2016-2017.

2015               Young scientist 2015 Gold Medal Award by Pakistan Academy of Medical Sciences (PAMS).

2007-2010      HEC Ph.D. Indigenous fellowship for Ph.D. studies

2018               Travel award of 2500 $ to attend the conference in Malaysia sponsored by NAS and ASM (2018)

2018               Invited guest speaker and delivered a talk on “Molecular Tools in The Study of Viral
                       Pathogenesis in an International conference on “Poultry Viral Diagnostics” was held on March
                       05-10, 2018 at UVAS, Lahore, Pakistan

Personal Statement(Brief description of prior research, skills, and experiences)

I am Dr. Sobia Manzoor, working as Assistant Professor at ASAB, NUST. Molecular Virology and Immunology had been my focal interest since the last decade when I took it as my Ph.D. research project. HCV as the subject of study using liver cell lines, blood samples and explanted liver tissue of chronic HCV infected patients abetted me to master the most advanced trends and skills in Molecular Virology and Immunology. I am currently heading the Molecular Virology and Immunology research group and supervising 3PhD,4MSstudentswhile 5 Ph.D., and 23 MS and7BS students have accomplished their dissertation under my direct supervision from 2010 to date now. These students have worked and are working on clinical samples of virally infected patients as well as cell lines. Clinical samples include blood samples as well as liver biopsies/ explanted liver tissue of patients. My research group is focusing on both basic and applied problems in molecular virology. We have and are working on HCV induced end-stage liver pathologies and hepatocellular carcinoma, Non-HCV and HCV induced hepato-carcinogenesis and hepato-regeneration pathways and study of Purinergic receptors in hepatobiliary cancers. Various techniques of molecular virology like cell culture, Immunohistochemistry analysis (IHC), conventional PCR, nested PCR, multiplex PCR, Real-time quantification; western blot, viral genome extraction, cDNA synthesis, PCR amplification, viral infectivity assay etc. are efficiently going on in the lab. I have a hand on expertise on all aforementioned techniques. My contribution in Molecular Virology and Immunology has been recognized at home and abroad and my research work has been published in 48 peer-reviewed research papers in International scientific journals with an overall impact factor 100+ and of citations 450+. I have successfully completed the grant entitled “PAK-US HCV Management in Pakistan” of worth 36000USD in the capacity of Principal Investigator. I have been awarded two research grants of worth 18000USD and 42000USD during 2017 from Higher Education Commission (HEC), Pakistan after a rigorous national competition. My remarkable performance and contribution in the field of Medical and Health Sciences have been appreciated by Pakistan Academy of Medical Sciences (PAMS) and I am the recipient of “PAMS- Young Scientist Gold Medal Award, 2015”. Recently I have been declared and awarded with “ASAB- The Best Researcher of the year 16-17” by my institution. My all contribution and work experience as a head of research group, principal investigator of research grants, successful supervision and publication of good number of projects at postgraduate level are ample evidence of my abilities to lead a research group, to do work in a team and have proficiency to face the challenges in the field of Viral Induced Liver Cancers, Viral Pathogenesis and Immunology. In order to enhance my expertise, to learn latest techniques, to get International exposure, to further nurture my professional training and finally to quench my thirst to learn and work in world best institution, I now strongly wish to join a world-renowned research group. If I am provided with an opportunity, I will try at my level best to deliver my best.

A. Publications with the peer review process, ISI Indexed  with Impact Factor

1: Naseem S, Hussain T, Manzoor S*.Interleukin-6: A promising cytokine to support liver regeneration and adaptive immunity in liver pathologies.Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2018 Feb;39:36-45. doi: 10.1016/j.cytogfr.2018.01.002. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

2: Naeemi H, Aslam R, Raza SM, Shahzad MA, Naz S, Manzoor S, Khaliq S. Distribution of IL28B and IL10 polymorphisms as genetic predictors of treatment response in Pakistani HCV genotype 3 patients. Arch Virol. 2018 Apr;163(4):997-1008. doi: 10.1007/s00705-018-3711-3.Epub.

3: Bhatti S, Manzoor S*, Parvaiz F, Ashraf J, Javed F. In-Vitro Transcription analysis of NS5A from HCV-3a circulating in Pakistani patients with chronic hepatitis C and their differential response to antiviral therapy. Pak J Med Sci. 2017 Sep-Oct;33(5):1236-1241. doi: 10.12669/pjms.335.12973.

4: Javed F, Manzoor KN, Ali M, Haq IU, Khan AA, Zaib A, Manzoor S.Zika virus: what we need to know? J Basic Microbiol.2017 Nov 13.doi: 10.1002/jobm.201700398. [Epub ahead of print]

5: Asif A, Manzoor S*, Tuz-Zahra F, Saalim M, Ashraf M, Ishtiyaq J, Khalid M. Zika Virus: Immune Evasion Mechanisms, Currently available therapeutic Regimens, and Vaccines.Viral Immunol. 2017 Dec;30(10):682-690. doi: 10.1089/vim.2017.0046. Epub 2017 Oct 13.

6: Umar Saeed, Sobia Manzoor*, Zahra ZahidPiracha. Hepatitis C Virus induces Oxidative stress and DNA damage by regulating DNAPKCs, ATM, ATR, and PARP-mediated signaling; guarding the cell from the cancerous condition by upregulating RB, P53 and downregulating VEGF,. ActaVirologica 61:316-323,2017. Doi: 10.4149/av_2017_310

7: S. N. Sabir, S. Manzoor*, F. Parvaiz, M. Saalim, E. Ghani.Quantitative evaluation of insulin resistance markers in Pakistani patients suffering from HCV-associated type 2 diabetes mellitus.Actavirologica 61: 197 – 203, 2017 doi:10.4149/av_2017_02_10.

8: Ayesha Khalid, TabindaHussain, Sobia Manzoor*,  Muhammad Saalim,  Saba Khaliq. PTEN: A potential prognostic marker in virus-induced hepatocellular carcinoma.Tumour Biol. 2017 Jun;39(6):1010428317705754.
doi: 10.1177/1010428317705754.

9: Madiha Khalid, Lucie Brisson, Menahil Tariq1, Yunjie Hao1, RoselineGuibon, GaelleFromont, SharifahAlawieyah Syed Mortadza, FatemaMousawi, Sobia Manzoor*, Sebastien Roger*, Lin-Hua Jiang*. Carcinoma-specific expression of P2Y11 receptor and its contribution in ATP-induced purinergic signaling and cell migration in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.Oncotarget. 2017 Mar 14. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.16191. [Epub ahead of print] doi:

10: Mahd Rauf, Fatima-Tuz-Zahra, Sobia Manzoor*, Azra Mehmood, Shameem.The outbreak of chikungunya in Pakistan. Lancet Infect Dis. 2017 Mar;17(3):258. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(17)30074-9. Epub 2017 Feb 23.DOI 10.1016/S1473-3099(17)30074-9.

11: Muhammad Imran, Sobia Manzoor*, Muhammad Salim, SalehaResham, Javed AshrafAneela, Javed, Ahmed Bilal Waqar. HIV-1 and Hijacking of the Host Immune System: The Current Scenario APMIS.2016 Aug 19.doi: 10.1111/apm.12579. [Epub ahead of print]

12: ShameemBhatti, SobiaManzoor*Molecular epidemiology and clinical features of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) in epidemic areas of Interior Sindh, Pakistan. Pak J Med Sci. 2016;32(5):1279-1282. doi:

13: SobiaManzoor#*, UmairAkhtar#, SidrahNaseem, Madiha Khalid1, MishaMazhar, FahedParvaiz, Saba Khaliq.IonotropicPurinergic Receptors P2X4 and P2X7: Proviral or Antiviral? Insight into P2X Receptor Signaling and HCV Infection.Viral Immunol.2016 Aug 15. [Epub ahead of print]

14: Manzoor, S*., Saalim, M., Imran, M., Resham, S.,  Ashraf, J. (2015): Hepatitis B virus therapy: What's the future hold for us?World J Gastroenterol. 2015 Nov 28; 21(44):12558-75. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i44.12558. PMID: 26640332. ISSN1007-9327 (print) ISSN 2219-2840 (online)

15: Parvaiz, F. Manzoor, S*., Iqbal, J., Sarkar-Dutta, M., Imran, M., Waris. G. (2015): Hepatitis C virus NS5A promotes insulin resistance through IRS-1 serine phosphorylation and increased gluconeogenesis.World J Gastroenterol. 2015 Nov 21; 21(43):12361-9. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i43.12361. PMID: 26604643. ISSN1007-9327 (print) ISSN 2219-2840 (online)

16: Saalim, M., Resham, S., Manzoor, S*., Ahmad H., Jaleel, S.,  Ashraf, J., Imran, M.,  Naseem, S.(2015): IL-22: a promising candidate to inhibit viral-induced liver disease progression and hepatocellular carcinoma.Tumour Biol. 2015 Nov 5. PMID: 26541758.ISSN: 1010-4283 (Print) 1423-0380 (Online)

17: Javed F, Manzoor S*, Khattak, A.A., Imran. M, Parvaiz. F., Ashraf. J., Tariq, H., Bhatti, S.  (2015): Molecular characterization and fluorescence analysis of HCV non-structural proteins NS3, NS3-4A and NS4A of genotype 3a. Acta Virol. 2015 Sep; 59(3):284-94. ISSN: 0001-723X, E-ISSN 1336-2305.

18: Resham, S., Manzoor, S*., Imran, M., Saalim, M., Naseem, S., Azam, S. (2015): Interleukin- 28B: a prognostic marker in the interferon-based therapy of chronic HCV patients of Pakistan with variable treatment response.APMIS. 2015 Sep; 123(9):765-71. doi: 10.1111/apm.12414. Epub 2015 Jul 14.ISSN: 1600-0463.

19:Azam, S.,  Manzoor, S*, Imran, M., Ashraf, J., Ashraf, S., Resham, S, Ghani ,E. Role of interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 1 single nucleotide polymorphism in natural clearance and treatment response of HCV infection.  (2015): Viral Immunol. 2015 May; 28(4):222-8. doi: 10.1089/vim.2014.0111. ISSN: 0882-8245 • Online ISSN: 1557-8976.

20: Saeed, U., Mazoor, S.,   Jalal, N.,  Piracha, Z.Z. (2015). Contemplating the Importance of Toll-like Receptors I and II Regarding Human Viral Pathogenesis.Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2015 January; 8(1): e13348. DOI: 10.5812/jjm.13348. Published online 2014 December 6. pISSN:2008-3645; e-ISSN:2008-4161

21: Imran, M., Manzoor, *S., Azam S, Resham. S. (2015): Genetic variant of IL28B rs12979860, as the predictive marker of interferon-based therapy in Pakistani population.APMIS. 2015 Apr; 123(4):342-9. doi: 10.1111/apm.12365. ISSN: 1600-0463.

22: Imran, M., Manzoor, S*., Parvaiz, F. (2014): Predictive Potential of IL-18- 607 and Osteopontin-442 Polymorphism in the Interferon-Based therapy of HCV Infection in the Pakistani Population. Viral Immunol. 2014 Oct;27(8):404-11. doi: 10.1089/vim.2014.0044. Epub 2014 Sep 8.ISSN: 0882-8245 • Online ISSN: 1557-8976.

23: Ahmed, Q.L., Manzoor, *S., Tariq, M., Khalid, M., Ashraf, W.,  Parvaiz, F., Imran, M. (2014): Hepatitis C virus infection in vitro triggers endoplasmic reticulum stress and downregulates insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 through upregulation of cytokine signaling suppressor 3. Acta Virol. 2014 Sep;58(3):238-44. doi:10.4149/av_2014_03_238. ISSN:0001-723X, E-ISSN 1336-2305.

24: Khalid, M., Manzoor, S*., Tariq, M., Imran, M., Ashraf, W., Ahmed, Q. L., Javed, F. (2014): Investigation of biomarkers in peripheral blood cells of Pakistani chronic HCV patients with genotype 3a: an assessment of HCV-induced pathogenesis. Future Virol, 9(3), 275-282. ISSN: 1746-0794,1746-0808.

25: Imran, M., Manzoor, S*., Khattak, NM., Tariq, M., Khalid, M., Javed, F. and  Bhatti, S. (2014): Correlation of OAS1 Gene Polymorphism at Exon 7 Splice Accepter Site with Interferon-Based Therapy of HCV Infection in Pakistan. Viral Immunol. 2014 Apr; 27(3):105-11. doi: 10.1089/vim.2013.0107. Epub 2014 Mar 27.PMID:24673406. ISSN: 0882-8245 • Online ISSN: 1557-8976.

26: Khalid, M., Manzoor S*, Imran, M., Tariq, M., Ashraf, J.,  Ahmed, Q.L, Ashraf. W., Parvaiz.F., Ashraf, M. (2013). Development of murine models to study Hepatitis C virus-induced liver pathogenesis.Indian J Virol. 2013 Sep; 24(2):151-6. doi: 10.1007/s13337-013-0152-1. Epub 2013 Sep 14. ISSN: 2347-3584 (Print) 2347-3517 (Online) .

27: Parvaiz, F., Manzoor, S*., Iqbal, J., McRae, S., Javed, F., Ahmed, Q. L.,  Waris, G. (2014): Hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 5A favors upregulation of gluconeogenic and lipogenic gene expression leading towards insulin resistance: a metabolic syndrome. Archives of Virology, 159(5), 1017-1025.ISSN: 0304-8608 (Print) 1432-8798 (Online).

28: Tariq, M., Manzoor, S*., Ahmed, Q. L., Khalid, M. and  Ashraf, W. (2013): NOX4 induces oxidative stress and apoptosis through upregulation of caspases 3 and 9 and downregulation of TIGAR in HCV-infected Huh-7 cells. Future Virol, 8(7), 707-716. ISSN: 1746-0794, 1746-0808.

29: Ashraf, W., Manzoor, S*., Ashraf, J., Ahmed, Q. L., Khalid, M., Tariq, M. and  Aziz, H. (2013): Transcript analysis of P2X receptors in PBMCs of chronic HCV patients: an insight into antiviral treatment response and HCV-induced pathogenesis. Viral Immunol., 26(5), 343-350.ISSN: 0882-8245 • Online ISSN: 1557-8976

30: Imran, M.,  Manzoor, S*, Ashraf J, Khalid M, Tariq M, Khaliq HM, Azam S. (2013). Role of viral and host factors in the interferon-based therapy of hepatitis C virus infection.Virol J. 2013 Oct 1; 10:299. doi: 10.1186/1743-422X-10-299. PMID: 24079723. ISSN: 1743-422X.

31: Imran M, Manzoor, S*, Khattak NM, Khalid M, Ahmed QL, Parvaiz F, Tariq M, Ashraf J, Ashraf W, Azam S, Ashraf M. (2013) Current and future therapies for hepatitis C virus infection: from viral proteins to host targets.Arch Virol. 2014 May; 159 (5):831-46. doi: 10.1007/s00705-013-1803-7. Epub 2013 Aug 25. Erratum in: Arch Virol. 2014 May; 159 (5):847-8. ISSN: 0304-8608 (Print) 1432-8798 (Online)

32: Hussain, T., Manzoor, S*., Waheed, Y., Tariq, H., Hanif, K. (2012). Phylogenetic analysis of Torque Teno Virus genome from Pakistani isolate and incidence of co-infection among HBV/HCV infected patients.Virol J. 2012 Dec 28; 9:320. doi: 10.1186/1743-422X-9-320. ISSN: 1743-422X.

33: Ashraf, J., Hussain, Bokhari S.A, Manzoor, S., Khan A.A. (Nov.2012).Poor oral health and coronary artery disease: a case-control study. J Periodontol. 2012 Nov; 83(11):1382-7. doi: 10.1902/jop.2012.110563. ISSN:0022-3492 (Print); 1943-3670 (Electronic); 0022-3492 (Linking)

34: Imran M, Waheed, Y., Manzoor, S.,  Bilal, M, Ashraf,  W.,  Ali M., Ashraf, M. (June 2012).Interaction of Hepatitis C virus proteins with pattern recognition receptors.Virol J. 2012 Jun 22; 9:126. doi: 10.1186/1743-422X-9-126. ISSN: 1743-422X.

35. Tariq, H#., Manzoor, S#., Parvaiz, F., Javed, F., Fatima, K., Qadri, I. (2012): An overview In vitro models of HCV replication in different cell cultures. Infection, Genetics, and Evolution, 12(1), 13-20.

36. Parvaiz, F#., Manzoor, S#., Tariq, H., Javed, F., Fatima, K. and   Qadri, I. (2011): Hepatitis C virus infection: molecular pathways to insulin resistance. Virol.J, 8, 474.

37. Manzoor, S., Idrees, M*., Ashraf, J., Mehmood, A., Butt, S., Fatima, K. and   Qadri, I. (2011): Identification of ionotropic purinergic receptors in Huh-7 cells and their response towards structural proteins of HCV genotype 3a. Virology Journal, 8(1), 431.

38. Idrees, M., Rehman, I.U., Manzoor, S., Akbar, H., Butt, S., Afzal, S., Hussain, A. (2011):  Evaluation of three different hepatitis C virus typing methods for detection of mixed‐genotype infections. Journal of digestive diseases, 12(3), 199-203.

39. Butt, S., Idrees, M., Akbar, H., Manzoor, S., Awan, Z., Afzal, S., Hussain, A,  Rafique, S. (2010): The changing epidemiology pattern and frequency distribution of hepatitis C virus in Pakistan. Infection, Genetics, and Evolution, 10(5), 595-600.

40. Idrees, M., Rafique, S.,  Manzoor, S., Rehman, I. U., Akbar, H., Yousaf, M.Z., Butt, S.,  Riazuddin, S. (2009): Hepatitis C virus genotype 3a infection and hepatocellular carcinoma: Pakistan experience. World journal of gastroenterology: WJG,15(40), 5080.

41. Idrees, M., Butt, S., Awan, Z., Aftab, M., Khubaib, B., Rehman, I. U., Manzoor, S., Riazuddin, S. (2009). Nucleotide identity and variability among different Pakistani hepatitis C virus isolates. Virol J, 6, 130-140.

42. Khan, M., Manzoor, S., Mohsin, S., Khan, S.N.,  Ahmad, F.J. (2009): IGF-1 and G-CSF complement each other in BMSC migration towards infarcted myocardium in a novel in vitro model. Cell biology international, 33(6), 650-657.

B. Publications with the peer review process, Non -ISI Indexed  without  Impact Factor

43. Saeed U*, Waheed Y, Manzoor S, Ashraf M. . (2013).Identification of novel silent HIV propagation routes in Pakistan. World J Virol. 2013 Aug 12;2(3):136-8. doi: 10.5501/wjv.v2.i3.136.ISSN.2220-3249 (online).

44. Idrees, M., Awan, Z., Manzoor, S.,  Rafique, S., Rehman, I.U., Akbar, H., Butt, S.,  Badar, S. (2010): Hepatitis B virus YMDD-motif mutations with the emergence of lamivudine-resistant mutants: a threat to recovery. Gastroenterology and Hepatology from bed to the bench, 3(3).

45. Akbar, H., Idrees, M., Manzoor, S., Rehman, I.U., Butt, S., Yousaf, M. Z.  Aftab, M. (2009): Hepatitis C virus infection: A review of the current and future aspects and concerns in Pakistan. J Gen MolVirol, 1(2), 12-18.

46. Akbar, H., Khan, M., Khan, M., Manzoor, S., Khan, A.A.,  Shuaib, MA.,  Akbar, M., Idrees, M. (2009): Comparative efficacy of doxycycline and flumequine against experimentally induced colibacillosis in broiler chicks. Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health, 1(2), 017-022.

47Javed, F*., Manzoor, S., Khattak, A.A., Aurangzeb, N., Khan, S.N., Habib, D., Saleem, A. (2014). NS3-4A and NS4A proteins of hepatitis C virus regulate the apoptotic proteins expression in Huh-7 cells. International Journal of Biosciences | IJB |. Vol. 7, No. 5, p. 9-15, 2015: ISSN: 2220-6655 (Print), 2222-5234 (Online).

48: Saeed, U* and Manzoor, S. (2014). Risk Factors Associated with Transmission of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Virus in Pakistan. Global Journal of Medical research: F Diseases. Volume 14 Issue 1 Version 1.0 the Year 2014. Publisher: Global Journals Inc. (USA): Online ISSN: 2249-4618& Print ISSN: 0975-5888.

Share on facebook Share on twitter Share on linkedin Share on reddit Share on mail
Whatsapp Icon