International Journal of Immunology is a peer-reviewed open access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of immunology. Immunology is a diverse and growing discipline that can be defined as the study of the tissues, cells and molecules involved in host defense mechanisms. Immunologists attempt to understand how the immune system develops, how the body defends itself against disease, and what happens when it all goes wrong. Priority is given to work that provides fundamental insight into the workings of the immune system. Areas covered include, but are not limited to, innate immunity and inflammation; development; immune receptors, signaling and apoptosis; antigen presentation; gene regulation and recombination; cellular and systemic immunity; vaccines; immune tolerance; autoimmunity and tumor immunology, microbial immunopathology; and transplantation.

The great advances in immunology in recent years make this field one of the most dynamic and rapidly growing in biological sciences. This remarkable growth is stimulated by the influx of investigators from other disciplines such as biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, microbiology, virology and various medical disciplines. These disciplines are so well interlinked with immunology that no immunological challenge can now be properly addressed without sophisticated applications of expertise of combinations of these disciplines. As a consequence, immunology has become a vast and rich field encompassing discoveries and outlooks that range from the highly clinical to the highly molecular. Although such perspectives may appear diverse, they are, in fact, extremely interdependent. The journal seeks to present a balanced overview of contemporary immunology and melds together different aspects of molecular immunology, immunobiology and clinical immunology.

Immunology is the branch of biomedical science that deals with the response of an organism to antigenic challenge and its recognition of what is self and what is not. It deals with the defense mechanisms including all physical, chemical and biological properties of the organism that help it to combat its susceptibility to foreign organisms, material, etc

Immunology has its origins in the study of how the body protects itself against infectious diseases caused by microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi, and also parasitic organisms, such as helminth worms. Research / review articles deals with, among other things, the physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health and disease; malfunctions of the immune system in immunological disorders (autoimmune diseases, hypersensitivities, immune deficiency, transplant rejection); the physical, chemical and physiological characteristics of the components of the immune system in vitro, in situ, and in vivo are of prime interest.




Alireza Badiei

Postdoctoral Research Fellow

Dr. Badiei is currently a postdoctoral research fellow at the University of Pennsylvania. He completed his Ph.D. in the Department of Pathology, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand. He also has a Master’s in immunology obtained at the School of Medicine, Putra University of Malaysia and a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine degree (DVM) from Azad University, Oromia, Iran. His previous work experience includes working as an assistant research fellow at the University of Otago, Christchurch for one year, lecturer at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, the University of Malaysia Kelantan for two years and four years practice as a veterinarian in Iran.

Current Research

  • Retinal degenerative disease
  • Gaseous mediator molecules
  • Inflammation
  • Cell death and apoptosis

Interested topics

  • Immunology
  • Inflammation
  • Neuroinflammation
  • The Maurice and Phyllis Paykel Trust travel award to attend Innate Immunity conference, Barcelona, Spain. July 2015.
  • University of Otago travel award to attend European Macrophage and Dendritic Cell Society Conference, Vienna, Austria. October 2014.
  • University of Otago, Christchurch travel award to attend Research Forum of the Division of Health Science, University of Otago, Dunedin. September 2014.
  • Doctoral scholarship, University of Otago, New Zealand 2012-2015.
  • Bronze winner, Malaysian Technology EXPO (MTE) 2008, PWTC.
  • 3rd place. Light Microscopy Micrograph 2007. 6th ASEAN Microscopy Conference, Pahang, Malaysia.
  • Bronze winner, Invention, Research and Innovation Conference (PRPI 2007).
  • Graduate Research Fellowship, Putra University of Malaysia 2007-2008.

Member of the editorial board of Journal of Hepatology and Pancreatic Science,

  1. Alireza Badiei, Raghavi Sudharsan, Evelyn Santana, Jashoa L. Dunaief, Gustavo D. Aguirre.Comparative localization of cystathionine beta-synthase and cystathionine gamma-lyase in canine, non-human primate and human retina.  (Submitted for publication)
  2. RavinderGaddam, Robin Fraser, Alireza Badiei, Stephen Chambers, Victoria Cogger, David Le Couteur, Madhav Bhatia. Differential effects of kupffer cell inactivation on inflammation and the liver sieve following caecal-ligation and puncture-induced sepsis in mice. Shock. 2017; ;47(4):480-490.
  3. RavinderGaddam, Robin Fraser, Alireza Badiei, Stephen Chambers, Madhav Bhatia. Cystathionine-Gamma-Lyase gene deletion protects mice against inflammation and liver sieve injury following polymicrobial sepsis. PLOS ONE. 2016; 12; 11(8): e0160521.
  4. Badiei A, Chambers S, Ghaddam RR, Bhatia M. Inhibition of hydrogen sulfide production through gene silencing attenuates inflammation in a mouse model of CLP-induced sepsis. J Biosci. 2016; 41(1):87-95.
  5. AmriSaroukolaei S, Ghabaee M, Shokri H, Khosravi A, Badiei A. Evaluation of APR1 Gene Expression in Candida albicans Strains Isolated from Patients with Multiple Sclerosis. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2016 Apr 9; 9(5): e33292.
  6. Saroukolaei SA, Ghabaee M, Shokri H, Ghaffarpour M, Badiei A. The role of Candida albicans in the severity of multiple sclerosis. Mycoses. 2016; 59 (11): 697-704.doi: 10.1111/myc.12489.
  7. Badiei A, Ghaddam RR, Chambers S, Fraser R, Bhatia M. Cystathionine-gamma-lyase gene silencing with siRNA in monocytes/macrophages protects mice against acute pancreatitis. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2016; 100 (1): 337-46.
  8. Badiei A, Steven Gieseg, Sian Davies, Izani M, Madhav Bhatia. LPS Up-Regulates Cystathionine γ -Lyase Gene Expression in Primary Human Macrophages via NF-κB/ERK Pathway. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2015; 14(2):99-104.
  9. Ghaddam RR, Ang AD, Badiei A, Chambers S, Bhatia M. Alteration of the renin-angiotensin system in caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis the mouse. Pancreatology. 2015; 15 (6), 647-653.
  10. Badiei A, Muniraj N, Chambers S, Bhatia M. Inhibition of hydrogen sulfide production by gene silencing attenuates inflammatory activity by down-regulation of NF-κB and MAP kinase activity in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells. BioMed Research International. 2014. DOI:10.1155/2014/848570.
  11. Muniraj N, StampL, BadieiA, Hegde A, BhatiaM. Hydrogen sulfide act as a novel biomarker and disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and gout. International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases. 2014. DOI: 10.1111/1756-185X.12472.
  12. Muniraj N, Ang AD, Badiei A, River-Auty J, Bhatia M. Hydrogen sulfide: a new tool to design and develop drugs. Clinical Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Drugs. 2014; (1) 57-66.
  13. Badiei A, River-Auty J, Ang AD, Bhatia M. Inhibition of hydrogen sulfide production by gene silencing attenuates the inflammatory activity of LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013; (97): 7845-7852.
  14. River JR, Badiei AR, Bhatia M. Hydrogen sulfide as a therapeutic target for inflammation. Expert opinion on therapeutic target. 2012; (16): 439-449.
  15. Amri Saroukolaei S., Shokri H., Aklilu E., Pei Pei C., Amini P., Badiei A., Sharifzadeh A. and Amin F. Differential expression of the vacuolar aspartic proteinase (APR1) gene in Candida albicans strains isolated from Malaysian and Iranian human and mice blood. African Journal of Microbiology Research 2012; 6 (9): 2150-2155.
  16. Badiei A, H.F. Seow, R. Ramasamy, S, Vidyadaran. In vitro Effect of Lipopolysaccharide and Active Fragment of Beta-Amyloid on the Morphology and Ultrastructure of Microglia. Journal of Advanced Biomedical and Pathobiology Research. 2011; (1): 8-14.
  17. S.A. Saroukolaei, Alireza Badiei, P. Amini, V. Khalili, M. Heidari. Expression of the Vacuolar Aspartic Proteinase (APR1) Gene in Candida Albicans. Journal of Advanced Biomedical and Pathobiology Research. 2011; (1): 1-7.
  18. HemavathySubramaiam, Alireza Badiei, Rajesh Ramasamy, Maha Abdullah and Sharmili Vidyadaran. Establishment a culture system that supports in vitro expansion of adult microglia. Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences. 2010; 6(2):25-30.
  19. Vidyadaran S, Ooi YY, Subramiam H, Badiei A, Abdullah M, Ramasamy R, Seow HF. Effect of macrophage colony-stimulating factor on microglial responses to lipopolysaccharide and beta-amyloid. Cell Immunol. 2009; 259 (1): 105-110.
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