International Journal of Immunology is a peer-reviewed open access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of immunology. Immunology is a diverse and growing discipline that can be defined as the study of the tissues, cells and molecules involved in host defense mechanisms. Immunologists attempt to understand how the immune system develops, how the body defends itself against disease, and what happens when it all goes wrong. Priority is given to work that provides fundamental insight into the workings of the immune system. Areas covered include, but are not limited to, innate immunity and inflammation; development; immune receptors, signaling and apoptosis; antigen presentation; gene regulation and recombination; cellular and systemic immunity; vaccines; immune tolerance; autoimmunity and tumor immunology, microbial immunopathology; and transplantation.

The great advances in immunology in recent years make this field one of the most dynamic and rapidly growing in biological sciences. This remarkable growth is stimulated by the influx of investigators from other disciplines such as biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, microbiology, virology and various medical disciplines. These disciplines are so well interlinked with immunology that no immunological challenge can now be properly addressed without sophisticated applications of expertise of combinations of these disciplines. As a consequence, immunology has become a vast and rich field encompassing discoveries and outlooks that range from the highly clinical to the highly molecular. Although such perspectives may appear diverse, they are, in fact, extremely interdependent. The journal seeks to present a balanced overview of contemporary immunology and melds together different aspects of molecular immunology, immunobiology and clinical immunology.

Immunology is the branch of biomedical science that deals with the response of an organism to antigenic challenge and its recognition of what is self and what is not. It deals with the defense mechanisms including all physical, chemical and biological properties of the organism that help it to combat its susceptibility to foreign organisms, material, etc

Immunology has its origins in the study of how the body protects itself against infectious diseases caused by microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi, and also parasitic organisms, such as helminth worms. Research / review articles deals with, among other things, the physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health and disease; malfunctions of the immune system in immunological disorders (autoimmune diseases, hypersensitivities, immune deficiency, transplant rejection); the physical, chemical and physiological characteristics of the components of the immune system in vitro, in situ, and in vivo are of prime interest.




Gheyath K. Nasrallah

Associate Professor

Postdoctoral Fellowship. Jason Berman Zebrafish Laboratory, Department of Pediatrics /Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Ph.D. Microbiology and Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, Canada
Thesis title: Potential roles of the chaperonin (HtpB), polyamines, and the polyamine binding protein (PotD) in Legionella
pneumophila pathogenesis.

MSc Medical Technology / Branch of Medical Microbiology. Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Sciences and Technology (JUST), Irbid, Jordan.
Thesis Title: Respiratory viral infection among children hospitalized with respiratory illness at princess Rahma hospital in Northern Jordan

BSc Applied Biological Science / Branch of Applied Microbiology. Department of Applied Biology, Faculty of Science, (JUST), Irbid, Jordan.

I. Scholarships

Post-Doctoral Fellowship, Genome Canada, (45,000/year)
Graduate Research Funding Studentship, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of                      Medicine, Dalhousie University, NS, Canada, ($17,900/year)
Department of Microbiology and Immunology Graduate Scholarship, Faculty of Medicine,                                  Dalhousie University, NS, Canada, ($4000/year)
Graduate Assistantships. Faculty of Graduate Studies, ($3,000/year). JUST, Jordan

II. Awards and Distinctions
Best Poster Presentation Award: QU Research Day-given to Gheyath Khaled Nasrallah (GKN) and my research assistant- Rola Salem
Best Poster Presentation Award: QU Research Day-given to GKN and my graduate student Maria Smatti
Best Poster Presentation: Bioinformatics and Biostatistics Applications in Cancer Genomics Research Qatar University, Doha, Qatar-given to GKN and my undergraduate students- Mariam Sami & Sara Taleb
Best Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries student’s project at the Science Festival 14, 
Sultan Qaboos University, Oman-given to GKN my undergraduate student- Huda Yasmine
Cancer Care Nova Scotia (Canada) Innovation Excellence Award. Nova Scotia, Canada- given to Jason Berman research group including GKN
IWK Health Center Travel Grants, Nova Scotia, Canada- given to GKN
Canadian College of Microbiologist Award for top student symposium presentation and Canadian Society of Microbiology (CSM) student travel award
Faculty of Graduate Studies travel award, Dalhousie University
Canadian Society of Microbiologist Travel Award
Dalhousie Association of Graduate Student and Student Union Travel Award
Best Poster Presentation. Infectious Disease Research Day, Queen Elizabeth II Hospital, Halifax, NS, Canada
Nominated by Dalhousie University within the top 5% of doctoral students, for participation in the CIHR Research Poster Competition in Winnipeg, Canada
Employee of the year. Microbiology Clinical Laboratory, (2003). Tawam Hospital, AlAin, UAE

Publications in Peer-Reviewed Journals
Papers Under review
Ismail HM, Krishnamoorthy N, Al-Dewik N, Mohamed NA, Di Giacomo V, Gupta S, Häberle J , Thöny B 8, Blom HJ, Kruger WD, Ben-Omran T, Nasrallah GK. In-silico and in-vivo models for Qatari specific classical homocystinuria as basis for development of novel therapies. Human Mutation. Under Review- Major Revision submitted.

Salem RW, Younes N, Mesleh AG, Altamash T, Khraisheh M, Nasrallah GK. Toxicity Evaluation of Selected Ionic Liquid Compounds on Embryonic Developmental of Zebrafish. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. Under review-Minor revision submitted

Aldisi RS, Al-Sadeq DW, Mesleh AG, Abdalla OM, Yassine HM, Amimo JO, Thalib L, Nasrallah GK. Evaluation of diagnostic performance of Enzyme Immunoassays in assessing the seroprevalence of hepatitis E Virus (HEV). Journal of Clinical Virology. Under review

Nasrallah GK, Dargham SR, Harfouche M, Abu-Raddad LJ. Seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and 2 in Filipino and Indian Migrant Populations in Qatar: A Cross-sectional Survey on MenBlood Donors. BioMed Research International. Under review

Younes, N, Rasool K, Younis, MH, Mahmoud KA, Nasrallah GK. acute, cardio, neuro, and hepatotoxicity evaluation of chitosan nanoparticle using zebrafish embryo model. Carbohydrate polymer. Under review

Salem RW, Nasrallah1GK, Da'as S, Scott M, Mustafa I. Systemic biocompatibility and toxicity investigation of novel iron chelator starch-Deferoxamine (S-DFO) using zebrafish embryo model. Transfusion. Under review

Dengue and Chikungunya Seroprevalence among Immigrant Populations Residing in Qatar. Humphrey JM, Abu-Raddad LJ, Nasrallah GK-Submitted

Published papers

Da’as S, Resiq B, Nasrallah GK. White adipose tissue dysfunction in cancer cachexia. Journal of cellular physiology. Journal of Cellular Physiology. Accepted

Nasrallah GK, Zhang Yu, Zagho MM, Ismail HM, Al Khalaf AA, Prieto RM, Albinali KE, Elzatahry AA, Deng Y. A Systematic investigation of the bio-toxicity of core-shell magnetic mesoporous silica microspheres using the zebrafish model. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials. 265: 195-201

Nasrallah GK, Al‐Asmakh M, Rasool K, Mahmoud KA. Ecotoxicological assessment of Ti3C2Tx MXene using the zebrafish embryo model. Environmental Science: Nano. 5: 1002-11

Rasool K, Nasrallah GK, Younes N, Pandey RP, Abdul Rasheed P, Mahmoud KA. “Green” Chitosan nanoparticles interlinked with ZnO for the efficient inhibition of Sulfate-reducing bacteria in injecting sea Water. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering. 6:3896-39

Hussein EA, Zagho MM, Nasrallah GK, Elzatahry AA. Recent Advances in functional nanostructures as cancer photothermal therapy. International Journal of Nanomedicine.13:1-1

Nasrallah GK, Younes NN, Baji MH, Shraim AM, Mustafa I. Zebrafish larvae as a model to demonstrate secondary iron overload. European Journal of Hematology. 18:1-8

Aldisi RS, Elsidiq MalS, Dargham SR, Sahara AS, Al-Absi ES, Nofal MY. Mohammed LI., Abu-Raddad LJ, Nasrallah GK. Performance evaluation of four type-specific commercial assays for detection of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) antibodies in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) population. Journal of Clinical Virology. 103: 1–7

Dargham SR, Nasrallah GK. Aldisi RS, Elsidiq MS, Sahara AS, Al-Absi ES, Nofal MY. Mohammed LI., Abu-Raddad LJ, Herpes simplex virus type 2 seroprevalence among different Middle East and North Africa Men National (MENA) Populations. Sexually transmitted disease. In press.

Nasrallah GK, Dargham SR, Mohammed LI, Abu-Raddad LJ. Estimating seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 among different Middle East and North Africa populations. Journal of Medical Virology. 90: 184-190

Al-Sadeq DW, Majdalawieh AF, Mesleh AG, Abdalla OM., Nasrallah GK. Challenges in laboratory diagnosis of hepatitis E virus (HEV). Journal of Medical Microbiology. 67: 466-480


Smatti MK, Hadi M. Yassine HM, Al-Marawani A, AbuOdeh R, Taleb SA, Althani AA, Nasrallah GK. Prevalence and molecular profiling of Epstein Barr virus (EBV) among healthy blood donors from different nationalities in Qatar. PLOS ONE. e0189033: 1-20

Abdallah O, Aziz H, Moussa H, Hussein S, Hadwan T, Nasrallah GK. The first study in Qatar to reveal high Legionella counts in cooling towers. Eastern Mideterian Health Journal (who journal). 123: 702-706

Majdalawieh AF, Massri M, Nasrallah GK. A comprehensive review of the anti-cancer properties and mechanisms of action of sesamin, a lignan in sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum). European Journal of Pharmacology. 815: 512-521.

Al‐Sadeq DW, Majdalawieh AF, Nasrallah GK. Seroprevalence and incidence of hepatitis E virus among blood donors: A review. Review of Medical Virology. 2017: e1937

Nasrallah GK, AL Absi ES, Gandour R, Ali NH, Sara T, Laila H, Ali F. Seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus among blood donors in Qatar (2013-2016). Transfusion. 57: 1801–1807

Hassiba AJ, E. El Zowalaty ME, Aboubakr AM, Nasrallah GK, Webster TJ, Khalil KA and Elzatahry AA. Synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial properties of novel double-layer nanocomposite electrospun fibers for wound dressing applications. International Journal of Nanomedicine. 12: 2205-2213

Gallego-Villar L, Hannibal L, Häberle J, Thöny B, Ben-Omran T, Nasrallah GK, Al- Dewik N, Kruger WD, Blom HJ. Cysteamine revisited: repair of arginine to cysteine mutations. Journal of Inherited Disease and Metabolism. 40: 555-567.

Mohamed IA, Krishnamoorthy NT, Nasrallah, GK, Da'as S. The role of cardiac myosin binding protein C3 in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy- progress and novel therapeutic opportunities. Journal of Cellular Physiology. 232: 1650-1659

Majdalawieh AF, Fayyad MW, Nasrallah GK. Anti-cancer properties and mechanisms of action of thymoquinone, the major active ingredient of Nigella sativa. Critical Review in Food Science and Nutrition. 57: 3911-3928


Hassiba AJ, E. El Zowalaty ME, Nasrallah GK, Webster TJ, Luyt LS, Aboubakr AM, Elzatahry AA. Review of recent research on biomedical applications of electrospun polymer nanofibers for improved wound healing. Nanomedicine. 11: 715-737.

Abdallah O, Jalali F, Zamani Z, Isamil HM, Shijimol M, Nasrallah GK, Husam M Younes HM. Fabrication & characterization of 3d electrospun biodegradable nanofibers for wound dressing, drug delivery, and other tissue engineering applications. Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology. 4: 191-201.

Al-Qahtani AA, Alabsi ES, AbuOdeh R, Thalib L, Nasrallah GK. Prevalence of Anelloviruses (TTV, TTMDV, and TTMV) in healthy blood donors and in patients infected with HBV or HCV in Qatar. Virology Journal. 13: 208

Amimo JO, El Zowalaty ME, Githae D, Wamalwa M, Djikeng A, Nasrallah GK. The metagenomic analysis demonstrates the diversity of fecal virome in asymptomatic pigs in East Africa. Archives of Virology. 161: 887-897.

Al-thani A, Marei HE, Hamdi WS., Nasrallah GK , Zowalaty ME, Al Khdor S, Al Asmakh M, Abdel-Aziz H. Human microbiome and its association with health and diseases. Journal of Cellular Physiology. 231: 1688–1694

Murry PF, Prykhozhij, S, Dufay N, Steel SI, Gaston, G, Nasrallah GK, Coombs AJ, Fernandez CV, Berman JN, and McMaster CR. Glycine and folate ameliorate models of congenital sideroblastic anemia. PLOS Genetics. 12:e1005783.


AbuOdeh R, Al-Absi ES, Ali NH, Hadwan TA, Khalili M, Al- Mawlawi N, Althani AA, and Nasrallah GK. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of human pegivirus (GBV-C) among blood donors and patients infected with hepatitis B Virus (HBV) in Qatar. Journal of Medical Virology. 87:2074-2081.

AbuOdeh R, Al-Mawlawi N, Al-Qahtani AA, Bohol MF, Al-Ahdal MN, Hasan HA, AbuOdeh L, and Nasrallah GK. Detection and genotyping of torque teno virus (TTV) in healthy blood donors and patients infected with HBV or HCV in Qatar. Journal of Medical Virology. 87: 1184-91

E. El Zowalaty ME, Al Thani AA, El Zowalaty AE, Webster TJ, Schweizer H, Nasrallah GK, Marie H, and Ashour HM. Pseudomonas aeruginosa: the arsenal of resistance mechanisms, decades of changing resistance profiles, and future antimicrobial therapies. Future Microbiology. 10:1683-706.

Nasrallah GK. A yeast two-hybrid screen reveals a strong interaction between the Legionella chaperonin Hsp60 and the host cell small heat shock protein Hsp10. Acta Microbiologica Et Immunologica Hungarica. 62: 121-135.


Nasrallah GK, Abdelhady H, Tompkins NT, Carson CR, and Garduno RA. Deletion of potD, encoding a putative spermidine-binding protein, results in a complex phenotype in Legionella pneumophila. International Journal of Medical Microbiology. 304: 703-716.


Nasrallah GK, Riveroll A, Chong A, Murray LE, Lewis PJ, and Garuduño RA. Legionella pneumophila requires polyamines for optimal intracellular growth. Journal of Bacteriology. 193: 4346-4360

Nasrallah GK, Orton D, Ganon E, and Garduno RA. The htpAB operon of Legionella pneumophila cannot be genetically complemented by groE chaperonin operon of Escherichia coli. Canadian Journal of Microbiology. 57: 943-952

Garduno GA, Chong A, Nasrallah GK, and Allan DS. The Legionella pneumophila chaperonin – an unusual multifunctional protein in the unusual location. Frontiers in Microbiology (Cellular and Infection Microbiology). e2:122.

Da'as SI, Teh ME , Dobson TD, Nasrallah GK, Wang H, Neuberg DS, Marshall JS, Lin TJ, and Berman JN. Zebrafish mast cells possess a FcεRI-like receptor and participate in innate and adaptive immune responses. Developmental and Comparative Immunology, 5: 125-124.


AbuOdeh R, Yasin S, Nasrallah G, Babi Y. Rates of infection and phylogenetic analysis of GB virus C among Kuwaiti and Jordanian blood donor. Intervirology, 53:402-407.

Chong A, Lima CA, Allan DS, Nasrallah GK, and Garduño RA. The purified and recombinant Legionella pneumophila chaperonin alters mitochondrial trafficking and microfilament organization. Infection and immunity, 77: 4724-4739.


Meqdam MM, Nasrallah GK, Al Shurman A. Detection of adenovirus infection in children in Jordan. Annals of Tropical Pediatrics, 21: 59-65


Meqdam MM, and Nasrallah GK. Enhanced detection of respiratory syncytial virus by shell vial in children hospitalized with respiratory illnesses in northern Jordan. Journal of Medical Virology. 62: 518-523


Nasrallah GK, Meqdam MM, and Al Shurman A. Parainfluenzae and influenza viruses Infection among children with upper respiratory tract infection. Saudi Medical Journal.


























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