International Journal of Immunology is a peer-reviewed open access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of immunology. Immunology is a diverse and growing discipline that can be defined as the study of the tissues, cells and molecules involved in host defense mechanisms. Immunologists attempt to understand how the immune system develops, how the body defends itself against disease, and what happens when it all goes wrong. Priority is given to work that provides fundamental insight into the workings of the immune system. Areas covered include, but are not limited to, innate immunity and inflammation; development; immune receptors, signaling and apoptosis; antigen presentation; gene regulation and recombination; cellular and systemic immunity; vaccines; immune tolerance; autoimmunity and tumor immunology, microbial immunopathology; and transplantation.

The great advances in immunology in recent years make this field one of the most dynamic and rapidly growing in biological sciences. This remarkable growth is stimulated by the influx of investigators from other disciplines such as biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, microbiology, virology and various medical disciplines. These disciplines are so well interlinked with immunology that no immunological challenge can now be properly addressed without sophisticated applications of expertise of combinations of these disciplines. As a consequence, immunology has become a vast and rich field encompassing discoveries and outlooks that range from the highly clinical to the highly molecular. Although such perspectives may appear diverse, they are, in fact, extremely interdependent. The journal seeks to present a balanced overview of contemporary immunology and melds together different aspects of molecular immunology, immunobiology and clinical immunology.

Immunology is the branch of biomedical science that deals with the response of an organism to antigenic challenge and its recognition of what is self and what is not. It deals with the defense mechanisms including all physical, chemical and biological properties of the organism that help it to combat its susceptibility to foreign organisms, material, etc

Immunology has its origins in the study of how the body protects itself against infectious diseases caused by microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi, and also parasitic organisms, such as helminth worms. Research / review articles deals with, among other things, the physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health and disease; malfunctions of the immune system in immunological disorders (autoimmune diseases, hypersensitivities, immune deficiency, transplant rejection); the physical, chemical and physiological characteristics of the components of the immune system in vitro, in situ, and in vivo are of prime interest.




Desta Kassa Misgina

Assistant Lab advisor

Dr  Desta has completed his PhD at the age of 46 years from University of Utrecht-University Medical Centre Utrecht, The Netherlands. He has thirteen years of experience as a researcher in clinical and biomedical research (focused on infectious diseases including HIV, TB, HBV/HCV and malaria); as a public health professional coordinating and participating in national HIV, TB and HIV/TB survey and surveillance; and in evaluating national programs related to HIV and TB.

He has published 25 scientific articles in peer-reviewed journals and presented 28 peer-reviewed abstracts at national and international conferences. He served as external examiner for 8 MSc thesis defence; as primary advisor for 16 masters' thesis projects; and as a reviewer of study protocols, curriculums, and manuscripts submitted to peer reviewed journals. He has ample experience on immunological and molecular laboratory techniques; working with governmental and non-governmental organizations and on chairing national technical working groups for HIV and TB.

2014       PhD, in biomarker identification for TB in the context of HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia, University of  Utrecht-University Medical Centre Utrecht, The Netherlands

2003       M.Sc. in Biomedical Science, Addis Ababa University

1992       B.Sc. in Marine Biology, Asmara University

2004...:            Researcher at the National HIV and TB reference Laboratories (EPHI) focused on infectious  diseases (HIV, TB, HBV and Malaria)

2009-2014:      principal investigator (PI) of the longitudinal study project “The Evaluation of M   tuberculosis specific host cytokine signatures in whole blood culture supernatants as diagnostic biomarkers for active TB infection” funded by EDCTP which involves 12 consortium members from Africa, Europe and USA (

2006-2015:     PI of the longitudinal study project “Biomarkers for the protective host immunity of TB in the context of HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia” Grand challenges (GC) in Global health (#6) project funded by BMGF, which involves 15 consortium members from Africa, Europe and USA (www.biomarkers.for.tb)

  1. Certificate of participation of the workshop "The 2017 applied leadership and management workshop at the Ethiopian public health Institute" 16-18 February 2017, given by Ohio University
  2. Certificate of the completion of the course "24th Annual principles of STD/HIV research course", July 18-July 28, 2016; University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA;
  3. Certificate of attendance on the 2015 Workshop on Methods for HIV Estimates and projection; 19-20 February, 2015;Johansbur, South Africa; UNAIDS Regional Support Team, Eastern and Southern Africa.
  4. Good clinical practice certificate: ICH GCP: An Introduction for the New Investigator(Activity No: IGCP260612); qualified for 8 CEUs (of which 2 are Ethics CEUs). By Accredited GCP training provider: MT-12/00143 (Crede)
  5. Certificate of completion of “substance use and HIV in Africa: Research and program issues and challenges workshop”, December 3-4, 2011, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.  
  6. Certificate of attendance of the 16th International Conference on AIDS and STIs in Africa (ICASA), 4-8 December 2011, Addis Ababa Ethiopia 
  7. Certificate of attendance of the Project and program management by RIPA International at Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute, 24-28 October 2011.
  8. Certificate of attendance of the Erasmus Summer Programme 2010 at the Erasmus MC University Medical Centre, August 9-27, 2010
  9. Certificate of completion of “ Training Course in data Triangulation” organized by School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, WHO and University of California, San Francisco; 22-26 February 2010, Zagreb, Croatia. 
  10. Certificate of training on successful completion of “Training on Statistical Package for Social Science, SPSS” Organized by CDC-Ethiopia. September 28-October 2009, Adama, Ethiopia.
  11. Certificate of participation on successful completion of “Training on Effective Oral Communication for Public Health professionals in Ethiopia” Organized by CDC-Ethiopia. May 2, 2008, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
  12. Certificate of participation on successful completion of special training course on “Application of GIS/GPS in health monitoring and evaluation programmes” using ArcGis 9.2 & DNRGarmin. Organized by Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute (EHNRI)  and CDC-Ethiopia. April 14th -20th, 2008, Adama, Ethiopia.
  13. Certificate of participation on successful completion of special training course on “Electronic Data Processing, Analysis and Reporting Using Epi-Info 2000”. Organized by Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute (EHNRI)  and CDC-Ethiopia. Dece 10th -14th, 2007, Mekel, Ethiopia.
  14. Certificate of participation on successful completion of special training course on “Introduction to GIS, GPS and their applications in the health sectors” using ArcGis 9.2 & DNRGarmin. Organized by Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute (EHNRI)  and CDC-Ethiopia. Octo 15th -19th, 2007, Adama, Ethiopia.   
  15. Certificate of attendance in the Multi drug resistance and infection control in Tuberculosis, 17th – 20th April 2007, Arusha, Tanzania.
  16. Certificate of participation as a Trainer in the 2007 round ANC based HIV/AIDS sentinel surveillance TOT organized by Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute (EHNRI) , HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control Office (HAPCO) and CDC-Ethiopia. January 29-February 2, 2007, Adama, Ethiopia.
  17. Certificate of participation in Laboratory management training, jul 17-21, 2006, Adama, Ethiopia, Organized by EHNIR and CDC Ethiopia
  18. Certificate of  training in the Regional Training course on ELISPOT, 27-31 March 2006, Nairobi Kenya (Organized by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in cooperation with the University of Nairobi, Kenya AIDS Vaccine Initiative) 
  19. Certificate of attendance in Improving the quality of TB prevention and control services, 5-16 September 2005, Kampala, Uganda)
  20. Certificate of training in HIV-1 BED incidence assay sponsored by WHO, African AIDS vaccine programme (AAVP), Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute (EHNRI) and U.S. centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Jan. 17-21, 2005, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
  21. Certificate of training on Quality Assurance and SOP development prepared by Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Institute (EHNRI), March 7-11, 2005, Adama, Ethiopia.
  22. Certificate of cold chain maintenance training programme, given by Dometic Medical systems, November 11-12, 2004, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
  23. Certificate of attendance of the 24th African Health Sciences Congress, September 28- October 2, 2003, in Addis Ababa
  24. Certificate of short-term training (Sept.-Dec1997) in fish Biology in Wageningen Agricultural University, The Netherlands.
  25. Certificate of attendance in National Training Course and Workshop on Fish Stock Assessment, conducted by the lake Fisheries Development Project, Ministry of agriculture, Ethiopia & the FAO/DANIDA project (October 1996)
  1. Novel N. Chegou1, Jayne S. Sutherland, Anna-Ritah Namuganga , Paul LAM Corstjens, ….. Desta Kassa…… Africa-wide evaluation of host biomarkers in QuantiFERON supernatants for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS | (2018) 8:2675 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-018-20855-7
  2. Gebremedhin Gebremicael, Yemane Amare, Feyissa Challa, Atsbeha Gebreegziabxier, Girmay Medhin, Mistire Wolde, and Desta Kassa. Lipid Profile in Tuberculosis Patients with and without Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection. International Journal of Chronic Diseases; Volume 2017, Article ID 3843291
  3. Gebremedhin Gebremicael, Yohanes Belay, Fitsum Girma, Yemane Abreha, Atsbeha Gebreegziabxier, Simret Tesfaye, Zelalem Messele, Yibeltal Assefa, Bahrie Bellete, Desta Kassa, Lara Vojnov. The performance of BD FACSPresto™ for CD4 T-cell count, CD4% and hemoglobin concentration test in Ethiopia. PLoS ONE 12(4): e0176323, April 27, 2017
  4. Alula M. Teklu, Abiy Nega, Admasu Tenna Mamuye, Yohannes Sitotaw, Desta Kassa, Getnet Mesfin, Bekele Belayihun, Girmay Medhin, Kesetebirhan Yirdaw. Factors Associated with Mortality of TB/HIV Co-infected Patients in Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Sci. Vol. 27, Special issue No. 1 May 2016
  5. Selam Niguse Sahle, Dereje Teshome Asress, Kassu Desta Tullu, Atsebeha Gebrezgeaxier Weldemariam, Habteyes Hailu Tola, Yodit Alemayehu Awas, Gebremdihin Gebremichael Hagos, Muluwork Getahun Worku and Desta Kassa Misgina. Performance of point‑of‑care urine test in diagnosing tuberculosis suspects with and without HIV infection in selected peripheral health settings of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. BMC Res Notes (2017) 10:74
  6. Desta Kassa, Leonie Ran, Wilco de Jager, Theo van den Broek  et al… Discriminative expression of whole blood genes in HIV patients with latent and active TB in Ethiopia. Tuberculosis 100 (2016) 25e31
  7. Kissi Mudie*, Atsbeha Gebregzabher, Desta Kassa ROLE OF ANTIOXIDANTS IN THE PREVENTION OF CANCER -MECHANISMS OF ACTION AND MOLECULAR TARGETS. Book chapter - Lap Lambert Acadamic publishing; ISBN-9785639857874
  8. Awoniyi DO, Teuchert A, Sutherland JS, Mayanja-Kizza H, Howe R, Mihret A, Loxton AG, Sheehama J, Kassa D, Crampin AC, Dockrell HM, Kidd M, Rosenkrands I, Geluk A, Ottenhoff TH, Corstjens PL, Chegou NN, Walzl G; AE-TBC consortium. Evaluation of cytokine responses against novel Mtb antigens as diagnostic markers for TB disease. J Infect. 2016 Jun 13. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2016.04.036. [Epub ahead of print]
  9. Novel N Chegou, Jayne S Sutherland, Stephanus Malherbe  et al. (Desta Kassa  collaborator). Diagnostic performance of a seven-marker serum protein biosignature for the diagnosis of active TB disease in African primary healthcare clinic attendees with signs and symptoms suggestive of TB. Thorax 2016;0:1–10. doi:10.1136
  10. Habteyes Hailu Tola,  Davoud Shojaeizadeh,  Azar Tol, Gholamreza Garmaroudi, Mir Saeed Yekaninejad, Abebaw Kebede, Luche Tadesse Ejeta, Desta Kassa, Eveline Klinkenberg. Psychological and Educational Intervention to Improve Tuberculosis Treatment Adherence in Ethiopia Based on Health Belief Model: A Cluster Randomized Control Trial. PLoS ONE (2016) 11(5): e0155147. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155147
  11. Desta Kassa, Wilco de Jager, Gebremedhin Gebremichael, Yodit Alemayehu, Leonie Ran, Justin Fransen, Dawit Wolday, Tsehaynesh Messele, Belete Tegbaru,Tom H.M. Ottenhoff, Debbie van Baarle. The effect of HIV coinfection, HAART and TB treatment on cytokine/chemokine responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens inactive TB patients and latently Mtb infected individuals. Tuberculosis 96 (2016) 131e140
  12. Habteyes Hailu Tola, Davoud Shojaeizadeh1, Gholamreza Garmaroudi, Azar Tol, Mir Saeed Yekaninejad, Luche Tadesse Ejeta, Abebaw Kebede, Mehrdad Karimi and Desta Kassa. Psychological distress and its effect on tuberculosis treatment outcomes in Ethiopia. Glob Health Action 2015, 8: 29019
  13. Kissi Mudie*, Atsbeha Gebregzabher and Desta Kassa.  INVESTIGATION OF THE BIOCHEMICAL MECHANISM OF ACTION OF NTIOXIDANTS IN THE PREVENTION OF CANCER. International journal of pharmaceutical science and research;  IJPSR (2015), Vol. 6, Issue 11
  14. Habtom Taame, Abiyot Bekele, Dadi Jimma, Desta Kassa. Emergence of Niseria meningitides Sero group W135 in Ethiopia. A biannualy published scientific newsletter of the Ethiopian Public Helath Institute (EPHI); Scince Admas; Issue 5; June 2015.
  15. Paul Corstjens, Elisa M Tjon Kon Fat; Claudia J de Dood; Jolien J van der Ploegvan Schip; Kees L Franken; Novel N Chegou; Jayne S Sutherland; Rawleigh Howe; Adane Mihret; Desta Kassa; Marieta van der Vyver; Jacob Sheehama; Amelia Crampin; Harriet Mayanja-Kizza; Tom H Ottenhoff; Gerhard Walzl; Annemieke Geluk. Multi-center evaluation of a user-friendly lateral flow assay to determine IP-10 and CCL4 levels in blood of TB and non-TB cases in Africa. Clinical Biochemistry
  16. Kassa D, Gebremichael G, Alemayehu Y, Wolday D, Messele T, van Baarle D. Virologic and immunologic outcome of HAART in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-1 infected patients with and without tuberculosis (TB) and latent TB infection (LTBI) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. AIDS Res Ther. 2013;10(1):18 ('Highly accessed')
  17. Jayne S Sutherland, Maeve Lalor, Gillian F Black, Lyn R Ambrose, Andre G Loxton, Novel N Chegou, Desta Kassa et al. Analysis of host responses to secreted, latent and reactivation Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in a large multi-site study of subjects with different TB and HIV infection states in sub-Saharan Africa. PLoS ONE. 2013;  8(9): e74080. doi:10.1371
  18. J. S. Sutherland, A. G. Loxton, M. C. Haks, D. Kassa et al. Differential gene expression of activating Fcγ receptor classifies active TB regardless of HIV status or ethnicity. PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e74080
  19. Desta Kassa, Leonie Ran, Wudneh Geberemeskel, Mekashaw Tebeje, Amelewerk Alemu, Alemayehu Selase, Belete Tegbaru et al. Analysis of Immune Responses against a Wide Range of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Antigens in Patients with Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 2012, 19(12):1907.
  20. Desta M Kassa, Leonie Ran, Wudneh Weldemeskel, Mekashaw Tebeje, Amelewerk Alemu, Yodit Alemayehu, Gebremedhin Gebremichael, Alemayehu Selase, Belete Tegbaru, Dawit Wolday, Tsehaynesh Messele, Debbie van Baarle. Clinical, Hematological and Immunological Characteristics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Patients With and Without HIV-1 Infection: Responses to Six Month Tuberculosis Treatment. Biomedicine International. 2012,  3 (1). 
  21. Asfaw Adane, Kassu Desta, Aknaw Bezabih, Anteneh Gashaye, Desta Kassa. HIV associated anemia before and after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy at ART centre of Menelik Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Ethiop Med J. 2012, 50 (1):13-21 
  22. Desta kassa. The pattern of immunologic and virologic responses to Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment (HAART): Does success bring further challenges? Ethiop. J. Health Dev.  2011,  25(1):61-70 (Review article)
  23. Eshetu Lemma, Niel T. Constantine, Desta kass, Tsehaynesh Messele, Tedla Minday, Girum Taye, Almaz Abebe, Wegene Tamene, Mekashaw Tebeje, wudneh Gebremeskel, Asfaw Adane, Nugussie Gezahegn. Human Herpes Virus 8 infection in HIV-1 infected and un-infected pregnant women in Ethiopia. Ethiop Med J , 2009, 47 (3): 205-211.
  24. Belete Tegbaru, Dawit Wolday, Tsehaybesh Messele, Hailu Meles, Desta Kassa,  Desalegn Tesema. Assessment of the implimentation of HIV test kits at different levels of health institutions. Ethiop. Med. J. 2007,  45 (3)
  25. Desta kassa, Beyene Petros, Tsehaynesh Messele, Ermias Hailu , Dawit Wolday. Characterization of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in acute P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria patients in Wonji Sugar Estate. Clinical and Vaccine immunology. 2006, 13 (3):376-379
  26. Desta kassa, Beyene Petros, Tsehaynesh Messele , Alemayehu Admassu, Fekade Adugna , Dawit Wolday. Parasitologic and haematological features of acute Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax malaria infections at Wonji Sugar Estate, Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development. 2005,  19(2):132-139)