International Journal of Immunology is a peer-reviewed open access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of immunology. Immunology is a diverse and growing discipline that can be defined as the study of the tissues, cells and molecules involved in host defense mechanisms. Immunologists attempt to understand how the immune system develops, how the body defends itself against disease, and what happens when it all goes wrong. Priority is given to work that provides fundamental insight into the workings of the immune system. Areas covered include, but are not limited to, innate immunity and inflammation; development; immune receptors, signaling and apoptosis; antigen presentation; gene regulation and recombination; cellular and systemic immunity; vaccines; immune tolerance; autoimmunity and tumor immunology, microbial immunopathology; and transplantation.

The great advances in immunology in recent years make this field one of the most dynamic and rapidly growing in biological sciences. This remarkable growth is stimulated by the influx of investigators from other disciplines such as biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, microbiology, virology and various medical disciplines. These disciplines are so well interlinked with immunology that no immunological challenge can now be properly addressed without sophisticated applications of expertise of combinations of these disciplines. As a consequence, immunology has become a vast and rich field encompassing discoveries and outlooks that range from the highly clinical to the highly molecular. Although such perspectives may appear diverse, they are, in fact, extremely interdependent. The journal seeks to present a balanced overview of contemporary immunology and melds together different aspects of molecular immunology, immunobiology and clinical immunology.

Immunology is the branch of biomedical science that deals with the response of an organism to antigenic challenge and its recognition of what is self and what is not. It deals with the defense mechanisms including all physical, chemical and biological properties of the organism that help it to combat its susceptibility to foreign organisms, material, etc

Immunology has its origins in the study of how the body protects itself against infectious diseases caused by microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi, and also parasitic organisms, such as helminth worms. Research / review articles deals with, among other things, the physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health and disease; malfunctions of the immune system in immunological disorders (autoimmune diseases, hypersensitivities, immune deficiency, transplant rejection); the physical, chemical and physiological characteristics of the components of the immune system in vitro, in situ, and in vivo are of prime interest.




Liang Xu


9/01/1981-8/31/1986   M.D. (Equivalent) The FourthMilitaryMedicalUniversity, Xi'an, China

9/01/1986-8/31/1989  Master of Medical Sciences (Equivalent to Specialist Fellowship) Medical Oncology/Gastroenterology, Institute of Gastroenterology, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China

9/01/1989-8/31/1992 Ph.D. Tumor biology/Molecular immunology, Institute of Gastroenterology, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Dissertation title: Tumor-targeted therapy by immunoliposomes targeting human gastric cancer.  Mentor: Dr. Xue-yong Zhang, Professor and Chairman of Internal Medicine.

9/01/1992-4/30/1994 Resident/Clinical Fellow, Specialty: Medical Oncology and Gastroenterology. Department of Gastroenterology/Oncology, XijingHospital, The FourthMilitaryMedicalUniversity, Xi'an, China

5/1/1994-1/31/1996  Post-doctoral Research Fellow, Experimental Immunology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Louvain, Clos Chappelle-aux-Champs 30-56, B-1200 Brussels, Belgium (Supported by European Union Marie Curie Fellowship)

2/1/1996-9/30/1996  Post-doctoral Research Fellow, Department of Surgery/ Otolaryngology, Stanford University Medical Center, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305

10/1/1996-12/31/1997 Post-doctoral Research Fellow, Department of Oncology, Lombardi Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC


Precision cancer medicine targeting cancer and cancer stem cells, via novel nanovectors and rational drug design

1) Novel small-molecule cancer therapeutics - Drug discovery and molecular cancer therapy.

My lab has been working on drug discovery for novel small molecule cancer therapeutics targeting cell signaling pathways, especially for cancer cell chemo/radiosensitization by molecular modulation of apoptosis/autophagy/necroptosis. I have >25 issued / pending patents and was involved in four successful INDs, all are now in advanced clinical trials for cancer. I was involved in the discovery and development of the first Bcl-2 inhibitor entered clinical trials, also a natural product that has completed Phase IIb trials.

Currently, I am working on molecular cancer drug discovery, using structure-based rational drug design fornovel small molecule inhibitors targeting Musashi-1/2 and HuR,the RNA-binding proteinscritical for chemo/radioresistance but are so far believed “undruggable”. Through high-throughput screening and lead optimization, we obtained nanomolar to submicromolar lead compounds, and provisional patents were filed. Our long-term goal is for further lead optimization to obtain more potent and specific, drug like leads for development as first-in-class Musashi-1/2 or HuR inhibitors as whole new therapy for cancer. The projects are funded by two NIH/NCI R01 grants and one DOD grant.

2) Novel nanovector delivery systems targeting cancer and cancer stem cells - Drug/gene delivery.

Funded by multiple NIH and DOD grants,my lab works on the tumor-targeted delivery of molecular cancer therapeutics using novel nanotechnology. A self-assembled, virus-mimicking, non-viral nanovector for non-viral tumor-targeted, systemic p53 gene therapy has shown promise in chemo/radiosensitization of breast, prostate, head and neck cancer, just completed a first-in-human Phase I clinical trial,now in multi-center Phase II Trials. Multiple US and International Patents are issued or pending. Currently, I amexploring next generation nanovectors for tumor-targeted delivery of siRNA/miRNA/CRISPR-based therapeutics for targeting cancer and cancer stem cells. Imaging-based nano-drug delivery for cancer targeted therapy will be my focus.

  1. Awarded for Outstanding Young Investigator at The 1st Young Scientists Conference of Chinese Association for Science and Technology, China (1992)
  2. First Prize at The 1st Youth Academic Meeting of The FourthMilitaryMedicalUniversity, Xi’an, China (1992)
  3. Awarded for Outstanding Young Investigator at The 1st Young Scientists Conference of Shaanxi Province, China (1993)
  4. Awarded for Outstanding Young Investigator at The 2nd Conference of Chinese Foundation for Cancer Research, China (1994)
  5. Second Prize of Science and Technology from Ministry of Health of China (1994)
  6. European Community Marie Curie Fellowship, European Union (1994)
  7. Sustained Super Performance Award, Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, WashingtonD.C., U.S.A. (1996)
  8. University of MichiganUROP Faculty Recognition Award for Outstanding Research Mentorship, Honorable Mention, Ann Arbor, MI (2008)
  9. Rising Star Scholar Award, Kansas Bioscience Authority, Kansas State, USA (2010)
  10. Outstanding Scientist Award for International Collaboration, National Science Foundation of China (NSFC), China (2012)
  11. K-INBRE Scholar Award, Kansas IDeA Network of Biomedical Research Excellence, NIH (2013)

2008- International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine

2009- American Journal of Translational Research

2010- American Journal ofCancer Research

2010- Journal of Carcinogenesis & Mutagenesis

2010- Cancer Science and Therapy

2011- Journal of Cancer Therapeutics and Research

2012- Oncology Discovery

2013- JSM Biotechnology & Biomedical Engineering

2014- Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology

2015- Journal of Cancer Science

2015- Journal of Clinical Radiation Oncology

  1. Xu L, et al. Preparation and Characterization of Adriamycin-immunoliposomes against human gastric cancer.  Chinese J Digestive Diseases 1989; 9(6):325-327
  2. Xu L, et al. Selective Delivery of Palmitoyl Daunomycin Mediated by the Immunoliposomes against Human Gastric Cancer. Acta Biophys Biochem Sinica 1990; 22(3):299-302
  3. Xu L, et al. Antibody-mediated Targeting of Doxorubicin-containing Immunoliposomes to Human Gastric Cancer. J Med Coll PLA 1991; 6(1):48-52
  4. Xu L, et al. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of Human Gastric Cancer by Boron-containing immunoliposomes under Thermal Neutron Irradiation. Chinese Med J1991; 71(9):568-571
  5. Xu L, et al. Antibody-mediated Targeting of Immunoliposomes to Human Gastric Cancer. J Fourth Military Med Univ. 1991; 12(1):1-4
  6. Xu L, et al. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Mediated by Immunoliposomes against Human Gastric Cancer. Chinese J Monoclonal Antibody 1991; 7(4):1-5
  7. Xu L, et al. Preparation and Biodistribution of Boronated Monoclonal Antibody against Human Gastric Cancer. Chinese J Monoclonal Antibody 1991; 7(3):26-30
  8. Xu L, et al. Applications of Immunoliposomes in Diagnosis and Treatment of Cancer. Chinese J Monoclonal Antibody 1991: 7(1):67-71
  9. Xu L, et al. Comparison of Nine Kinds of Anti-gastric Cancer Immunoliposomes. Chinese Med J 1992: 72(2):101-102
  10. Xu L, et al. Antitumor Effects of Immunoliposomes against Human Gastric Cancer in vitro and in vivo. J Fourth M. Med. Univ. 1992; 13(1):68
  11. Xu L, et al. Therapeutic Effects of Anti-gastric Cancer Monoclonal Antibody-cisplatin Conjugates on Nude Mice Subrenal Capsule Xenografts of Human Gastric Cancer. J Fourth M. Med Univ. 1992; 13(1):53
  12. Xu L, et al. Boronation of Anti-gastric Cancer Monoclonal Antibody and Its Targeted Boron Neutron Capture Therapeutic Effects. Chinese J Monoclonal Antibody 1993: 9(1):1-5
  13. Xu L, et al. In Vitro and In Vivo Targeting Therapy of Immunoliposomes against Human Gastric Cancer. Chinese Med J 1994: 74(2):83-86
  14. Wu DC, Xu L, Zhang XY. Preparation of Oleo-mitomycin-liposomes with Improved Anti-tumor Effects. Applied Chem 1994: 11(5):98-101
  15. Nizet Y., Xu L., Latine D., and Bazin H. A new simple method to study the role of soluble factors in antibody-mediated cell modulation.  J Immunol Methods 1996; 199(1):1-4
  16. Xu, L., Pirollo, K.F., and Chang, E.H., Transferrin-Liposome-Mediated p53 Sensitization of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck to Radiation In Vitro.  Hum Gene Ther 1997; 8:467-475. (Cited 116 times, Google Scholar)
  17. Xu, L., Pirollo, K.F., Rait, A., Murray, A.L. and Chang, E.H. Systemic p53.  Tumor Targeting 1999; 4:92-104.
  18. Xu L, Pirollo KF, Tang WH, Rait A and Chang EH.  Transferrin-liposome-mediated Systemic p53 Gene Therapy in Combination with Radiation Results in Regression of Human Head and Neck Cancer Xenografts.  Hum Gene Ther 1999; 10:2941-2952. (Cited 211 times, Google Scholar)
  19. Xu, L., Pirollo, K.F., and Chang, E.H.  Tumor-Targeted p53-Gene Therapy Enhances the Efficacy of Conventional Chemo/Radiotherapy.  J Controlled Release 2001;74:115-128. (Cited 147 times, Google Scholar)
  20. Xu, L., Tang, W.H., Huang, C.C., Alexander, W., Xiang, L.M., Pirollo, K.F., Rait, A. and Chang, E.H.  Systemic p53 Gene Therapy of Cancer with Immunolipoplexes Targeted by Anti-Transferrin Receptor scFv. Molecular Medicine2001;7:723-734. (Cited 132 times, Google Scholar)
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  22. Xu L, Huang CC, Huang W, Tang WH, Rait A, Yin YZ, Cruz I, Xiang LM, Pirollo KF and Chang EH. Systemic tumor-targeted gene delivery by anti-transferrin receptor scfv-immunoliposomes.Mol Cancer Ther 2002; 1(5):337-346. (Cited 238 times, Google Scholar)
  23. Nikolovska-Coleska Z, Xu L, Hu Z, Tomita Y, Li P, Roller PP, Wang R, Fang X, Guo R, Zhang M, Lippman, ME, Yang D and Wang S, Discovery of Embelin as A Cell-Permeable, Small-Molecular Weight Inhibitor of XIAP through Structure-Based Computational Screening of Traditional Herbal Medicine Three-Dimensional Structural Database. J Med Chem 2004; 47(10):2430-2440.(Cited 315 times, Google Scholar)
  24. Sun H, Nikolovska-Coleska Z, Yang CY, Xu L, Tomita Y, Krajewski K, Roller PP and Wang S.  Structure-based design of conformationally constrained Smac Mimetics.  J Med Chem 2004; 47(17):4147-4150.(Cited 145 times, Google Scholar)
  25. Sun H, Nikolovska-Coleska Z, Yang CY, Xu L, Liu M, Tomita Y, Pan H, Yoshioka Y, Krajewski K, Roller PP and Wang S. Structure-based design of potent, conformationally constrained Smac mimetics.J Am Chem Soc 2004; 126(51):16686-7. (Cited 143 times, Google Scholar)
  26. Xu, L., Yang, D., Wang, S., Tang, W., Liu, M., Davis, M., Chen, J., Rae, J.M., Lawrence, T., and Lippman, M.E. (-)-Gossypol enhances response to radiation therapy and results in tumor regression of human prostate cancer. Mol Cancer Ther 2005;4(2):197-205. (Co-corresponding author) (Cited 141 times, Google Scholar)
  27. Abela RA, Qian J, Xu L, Lawrence TS and Zhang M. Radiation improves gene delivery by a novel transferrin-lipoplex nanoparticle selectively in cancer cells. Cancer Gene Ther 2008; 15(8):496-507.
  28. Meng Y, Tang W, Dai Y, Wu X, Liu M, Ji Q, Ji M, Pienta K, Lawrence T, Xu L. Natural BH3-mimetic (-)-gossypol chemosensitizes human prostate cancer via Bcl-xLinhibition accompanied by increase of Puma and Noxa. Mol Cancer Ther 2008; 7(7):2192-2202. PMCID: 2515935.(Cited 139 times, Google Scholar)
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  31. Jia G, Zhan Y, Wu D, Meng Y, and Xu L. An improved ultrasound-assistedextraction process of gossypol acetic acid from cottonseed soapstock. AIChE J2009; 55(3):797-806.
  32. Zhan Y, Jia G, Xu YS, Wu D, and Xu L. Design and synthesis of a gossypol derivative with improved antitumor activities. Arch Pharm2009; 342:223-229.
  33. Dai Y, DeSano TJ, Meng Y, Ji Q, Ljungman M, Lawrence TS and Xu L. Celastrol potentiates radiation therapy via impairment of DNA damage processing in human prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009; 74(4):1217-1225.PMC2745184.
  34. Ji Q, Hao X, Zhang M, Tang W, Meng Y, Li L, Xiang D, DeSano TJ, Bommer GT, Fan D, Fearon ER, Lawrence TS andXu L. MicroRNA miR-34 inhibits human pancreatic cancer tumor-initiating cells. PLoS One2009; 4(8):e6816.PMC2729376.(Cited 527 times, Google Scholar)
  35. Dai Y, Liu M, Tang W, Li Y, Lian J,Lawrence TS and Xu L. A Smac-mimetic sensitizes prostate cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis via modulating both IAPs and NF-kappaB.BMC Cancer 2009; 9:392. PMC2779195.
  36. Jia L, He H, Zeng M, Yang J, Xiong X, Hao X, Xu L and Y Sun. Validation of SAG/RBX2/ROC2 E3 ubiquitin ligase as an anti-cancer and radio-sensitizing target. Clin Cancer Res 2010; 16(3):814-824.PMC2819752.
  37. Wu X, Li M, Qu Y, Tang W, Zheng Y, Lian J, Ji M, and Xu L. Design and synthesis of novel Gefitinib analogues with improved anti-tumor activity. Bioorg Med Chem 2010; 18(11):3812-3822.PMC2890262.
  38. Lian J, Karnak D and Xu L. The Bcl-2-Beclin 1 interaction in (-)-gossypol-induced autophagy versus apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Autophagy2010;6(8):1201-3.PMC3039723
  39. Dai Y, DeSano J, Tang W, Meng X, Meng Y, Burstein E, Lawrence TS and Xu L. Natural Proteasome Inhibitor Celastrol Suppresses Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer Progression by Modulating Apoptotic Proteins and NF-kappaB. PLoS One 2010; 5(12): e14153. PMC3000808.
  40. Lian J, Wu X, He F, Karnak D, Tang W, Meng Y, Xiang D, Ji M, Lawrence TS and Xu L. A natural BH3-mimetic induces autophagy in apoptosis-resistant prostate cancer via modulating Bcl-2—Beclin1 interaction at endoplasmic reticulum. Cell Death Diff  2011; 18(1):60-71. PMC2950895(Cited 111 times, Google Scholar)
  41. Dai Y, Desano J, Qu Y, Tang W, Meng Y, Lawrence TS, and Xu L, Natural IAP inhibitor Embelin enhances therapeutic efficacy of ionizing radiation in prostate cancer. Am J Cancer Res 2011, 1(2):128-43. PMC3144474.
  42. Wu X, Li M, Tang W, Zheng Y, Lian J, Xu L, and Ji M, Design, Synthesis, and In vitro Antitumor Activity Evaluation of Novel 4-pyrrylamino Quinazoline Derivatives. Chem Biol Drug Des 2011, 78(6):932-940.PMC3412131.
  43. Lian J, Ni Z, Dai X, Su C, Smith AR, Xu L, and He F. Sorafenib sensitizes (-)-gossypol-induced growth suppression in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells via Mcl-1 inhibition and Bak activation. Mol Cancer Ther 2012, 11(2):416-426.
  44. Niu X, Li S, Wei F, Huang J, Wu G, Xu L, Xu D, and Wang S. Apogossypolone induces autophagy and apoptosis in breast cancer MCF-7 cells in vitro and in vivo.Breast Cancer2012 Jun 19;PMID:22711315
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  46. Cheng P, Ni Z, Dai X, Wang B, Ding W, Smith AR, Xu L, Wu D, and He F, Lian J.The novel BH-3 mimetic apogossypolone induces Beclin-1- and ROS-mediated autophagy in human hepatocellular cells.Cell Death Dis2013,4:e489. PMC3734844.
  47. Ni Z, Dai X, Wang B, Ding W, Cheng P, Xu L, Lian J, and He F. NaturalBcl-2inhibitor (-)-gossypolinducesprotectiveautophagyviaROS-HMGB1pathway in Burkittlymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma 2013. Feb 12. PMID:23398207
  48. Li L, Tang W, Wu X, Karnak D, Meng X, Thompson R, Hao X, Li Y, Qiao X, Lin J, Fuchs J, Simeone DM, Chen ZN, Lawrence TS, and Xu L. HAb18G/CD147 Promotes pSTAT3-Mediated Pancreatic Cancer Development via CD44s. Clin Cancer Res2013, 19:6703-6715. PMC3873783
  49. Wang B, Chen L, Ni Z, Dai X, Qin L, Wu Y, Li X, Xu L, Lian J, and He F, Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG sensitizes Bcl-2 inhibitor (-)-gossypol by suppressing ERK-mediated protective autophagy and Mcl-1 accumulation in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.Experimental Cell Research 2014. 328(2):379-387.PMID:25196280
  50. Wang L, Yang H, Palmbos PL, Ney G, Detzler TA, Coleman D, Leflein J, Davis M, Zhang M, Tang W, Hicks JK, Helchowski CM, Prasad J, Lawrence TS, Xu L, Yu X, Canman CE, Ljungman M, and Simeone DM. ATDC/TRIM29 Phosphorylation by ATM/MAPKAP Kinase 2 Mediates Radioresistance in Pancreatic Cancer Cells.Cancer Research 2014,74(6):1778-1788.PMC3961828
  51. Li L, Hao X, Qin J, Tang W, He F, Smith A, Zhang M, Simeone DM, Qiao X, Chen ZN, Lawrence TS, and Xu L. Antibody against CD44s Inhibits Pancreatic Tumor Initiation and Post-Radiation Recurrence in Mice. Gastroenterology 2014,146(4):1108-1118. PMC3982149 (Highlighted in Nature Reviews Gastroenterol Hepatol 2014, 11(2):73).
  52. Ni Z, Wang B, Dai X, Ding W, Yang T, Li X, Jason S, Xu L, Lian J, and He F. HCC cells with high levels of Bcl-2 are resistant to ABT-737 via activation of the ROS-JNK-autophagy pathway.Free Radic Biol Med2014,70:194-203. PMID:24576507
  53. Wang B, Ni Z, Dai X, Qin L, Li X, Xu L, Lian J, and He F. The Bcl-2/xL inhibitor ABT-263 increases the stability of Mcl-1 mRNA and protein in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.Molecular Cancer 2014;13(1):98. PMC4021276
  54. Zhang P, Huang Y, Liu H, Marquez RT, Lu J, Zhao W, Zhang X, Gao X, Li J, Venkataramanan R, Xu L, and Li S.A PEG-Fmoc conjugate as a nanocarrier for paclitaxel. Biomaterials 2014;35(25):7146-7156. PMC4102141
  55. Qin J, Yang B, Xu B-Q, Smithc A, Xu L, Yuan J-L, and Li L, Concurrent CD44s and STAT3 expression in human clear cell renal cellular carcinoma and its impact on survival. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology 2014;7(6):3235-3244.PMC4097256
  56. H Liu, K Li, L Lan, J Ma, Y Zeng, L Xu, and D Wu. Double-layered hyaluronic acid/stearic acid-modified polyethyleneimine nanoparticles encapsulating (−)-gossypol: a nanocarrier for chiral anticancer drugs. Journal of Materials Chemistry B 2014;2(32):5238-5248.
  57. Lu J, Zhao W, Huang Y, Liu H, Marquez R, Gibbs RB, Li J, Venkataramanan R, Xu L, and Li S, Targeted Delivery of Doxorubicin by Folic Acid-Decorated Dual Functional Nanocarrier. Molecular Pharmaceutics 2014;11(11):4164-4178. PMC4224520
  58. Deng L, Shang L, Bai S, Chen J, He X, Trevino RM, Chen S, Li X, Meng X, Yu B, Wang X, Liu Y, McDermott SP, Ariazi AE, Ginestier C, Ibarra I, Ke J, Luther TK, Clouthier SG, Xu L, Shan G, Song E, Yao H, Hannon GJ, Weiss SJ, Wicha MS, and Liu S, microRNA100 inhibits self-renewal of breast cancer stem-like cells and breast tumor development.Cancer Research 2014; 74(22):6648-6660.PMC4370193
  59. Lu J, Zhao W, Liu H, Marquez R, Huang Y, Zhang Y, Li J, Xie W, Venkataramanan R, Xu L, and Li S, An Improved D-α-Tocopherol-Based Nanocarrier for Targeted Delivery of Doxorubicin with Reversal of Multidrug Resistance. Journal of Controlled Release, 2014; 196:272-286.PMC4267990
  60. Zhang X, Huang Y, Zhao W, Liu H, Marquez R, Lu J, Zhang P, Zhang Y, Li J, Gao X, Venkataramanan R, Xu L, and Li S. Targeted delivery of anticancer agents via a dual function nanocarrier with an interfacial drug-interactive motif, Biomacromolecules, 2014. 15(11):4326-35. PMC4229023
  61. Liu H, Li K, Xu L, and Wu D, Bilayered near-infrared fluorescent nanoparticles based on low molecular weight PEI for tumor-targeted in vivo imaging.Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 2014;16(12):2784.
  62. Li K, Liu H, Gao W, Chen M, Zeng Y, Liu J, Xu L, and Wu D, Mulberry-like dual-drug complicated nanocarriers assembled with apogossypolone amphiphilic starch micelles and doxorubicin hyaluronic acid nanoparticles for tumor combination and targeted therapy. Biomaterials 2015;39(1):131-144.PMID: 25477180
  63. Wu X, Lan L, Wilson DM, Marquez RT, Tsao W-C, Gao P, Roy A, Turner B, McDonald P, Tunge JA, Rogers SA, Dixon DA, Aube J, and Xu L. Identification and validation of novel small molecule disruptors of HuR-mRNA interaction. ACS Chem Biol 2015;10(6):1476-1484.PMC4631057
  64. Smith AR, Marquez RT, Tsao W-C, Pathak S, Roy A, Ping J, Wilkerson B, Lan L, Meng W, Neufeld KL, Sun X-F, and Xu L. Tumor Suppressive microRNA-137 Negatively Regulates Musashi-1 in Colorectal Cancer. Oncotarget 2015, 6(14):12558-12573.PMC4494958
  65. Carlson EA, Marquez RT, Wang Y, Xu L, Yan SD. Overexpression of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 10 increases pheochromocytoma cell growth and resistance to cell death. BMC Cancer2015, 15:166.PMC4384325
  66. Lan L, Appelman C, Smith AR, Yu J, Larsen S, Marquez RT, Wu X, Gao P, Roy A, Anbanandam A, Gowthaman R, Karanicolas J, De Guzman RN, Rogers SA, Aube J, Ji M, Cohen RS, Neufeld KL, and Xu L. Natural product (–)-gossypol inhibits colon cancer cell growth by targeting RNA-binding protein Musashi-1. Molecular Oncology 2015;9(7):1406-1420. PMC4523432
  67. Cao CM, Wu X, Kindscher K, Xu L, Timmermann BN. Withanolides and Sucrose Esters from Physalis neomexicana. J Nat Prod. 2015;78(10):2488-2493. PMID: 26492982
  68. Gowthaman R, Miller SA, Rogers S, Khowsathit J, Lan L, Bai N, Johnson DK, Liu C, Xu L, Anbanandam A, Aube J, Roy A, and Karanicolas J. DARC: mapping surface topography by ray-casting for effective virtual screening at protein interaction sites.J Med Chem2016; 59(9):4152-4170. PMC4707132.
  69. Wu X, Tang W, Marquez RT, Li K, Highfill CA, He F, Lian J, Lin J, Fuchs J, Ji M, Li L, Xu L. Overcoming radiation resistance of pancreatic cancer by inhibiting STAT3 signaling. Oncotarget 2016; 7(10):11708-11723. PMC4905505.
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  71. Slone S, Anthony SR, Wu X, Benoit JB, Aube J, Xu L, Tranter M. Activation of HuR downstream of p38 MAPK promotes cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Cellular Signaling 2016;28(11):1735-1741. PMID:27521603.
  72. Xu B-Q, Fu Z-G, Meng Y, Wu X-Q, Wu B, Xu L, Jiang J-L, Li L, and Chen Z-N. Gemcitabine enhances cell invasion via activating HAb18G/CD147-EGFR-pSTAT3 signaling.Oncotarget 2016; 7(10):11708-11723. PMC4905505.
  73. Sun J, Chen Y, Li K, Huang Y, Fu X, Zhang X, Zhao W, Wei Y, Xu L, Zhang P, Venkataramanan R, and Li S. A prodrug micellar carrier assembled from polymers with pendant farnesyl thiosalicylic acid moieties for improved delivery of paclitaxel.Acta Biomaterialia, 2016. 43:282-291. PMC5012958
  74. Blanco FF, Preet R, Aguado A, Vishwakarma V, Stevens LE, Vyas A, Padhye S, Xu L, Weir SJ, Anant S, Meisner-Kober N, Brody JR, and Dixon DA. Impact of HuR inhibition by the small molecule MS-444 on colorectal cancer cell tumorigenesis, Oncotarget 2016; 7(45):74043-74058.PMID:27677075
  75. Kaur K, Wu X, Fields JK, Johnson DK, Lan L, Pratt M, Somoza AD, Wang CC, Karanicolas J, Oakley BR, Xu L, De Guzman RN. The fungal natural product azaphilone-9 binds to HuR and inhibits HuR-RNA interaction in vitro. PLoS ONE2017; 12(4): e0175471. PMC5393604.
  76. Yu J, Zhao X, Zhang N, You C, Yao G, Zhu J, Xu L, and Sun B. Identification of novel 3-nitroacridines as autophagy inducers in gastric cancer cells.New Journal of Chemistry 2017; 41(10):4087-4095.
  77. Zheng Y-G, Wu X-Q, Su J, Jiang P, Xu L, Gao J, Cai B, and Ji M. Design and synthesis of a novel photoaffinity probe for labelling egf receptor tyrosine kinases.Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry 2017; 32(1):954-959.
  78. Yu J, Lan L, Lewin SJ, Rogers SA, Roy A, Wu X, Gao P, Karanicolas J, Aube J, Sun B, and Xu L. Identification of novel small molecule Beclin 1 mimetics activating autophagy. Oncotarget 2017; 8(31):51355. PMC5584254
  79. Muralidharan R, Mehta M, Ahmed R, Roy S, Xu L, Aubé J, … Munshi A. HuR-targeted small molecule inhibitor exhibits cytotoxicity towards human lung cancer cells. Scientific Reports 2017; 7:9694.PMC5577245
  80. Lan L, Xing M, Douglas JT, Gao P, Hanzlik RP, Xu L. Human oncoprotein Musashi-2 N-terminal RNA recognition motif backbone assignment and identification of RNA-binding pocket. Oncotarget 2017; 8(63):106587-106597. PMC5739758
  81. Ni Z, He J, Wu Y, Hu C, Dai X, Yan X, Li B, Li X, Xiong H, Li Y, Li S, Xu L, Li Y, Lian J, and He F. AKT-mediated phosphorylation of ATG4B impairs mitochondrial activity and enhances the Warburg effect in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.Autophagy 2018; (in press)
  82. Y Zeng, J Liu, S Yang, W Liu, L Xu, R Wang. Time-lapse live cell imaging to monitor doxorubicin release from DNA origami nanostructures. Journal of Materials Chemistry B, 2018.