International Journal of Immunology is a peer-reviewed open access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of immunology. Immunology is a diverse and growing discipline that can be defined as the study of the tissues, cells and molecules involved in host defense mechanisms. Immunologists attempt to understand how the immune system develops, how the body defends itself against disease, and what happens when it all goes wrong. Priority is given to work that provides fundamental insight into the workings of the immune system. Areas covered include, but are not limited to, innate immunity and inflammation; development; immune receptors, signaling and apoptosis; antigen presentation; gene regulation and recombination; cellular and systemic immunity; vaccines; immune tolerance; autoimmunity and tumor immunology, microbial immunopathology; and transplantation.

The great advances in immunology in recent years make this field one of the most dynamic and rapidly growing in biological sciences. This remarkable growth is stimulated by the influx of investigators from other disciplines such as biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, microbiology, virology and various medical disciplines. These disciplines are so well interlinked with immunology that no immunological challenge can now be properly addressed without sophisticated applications of expertise of combinations of these disciplines. As a consequence, immunology has become a vast and rich field encompassing discoveries and outlooks that range from the highly clinical to the highly molecular. Although such perspectives may appear diverse, they are, in fact, extremely interdependent. The journal seeks to present a balanced overview of contemporary immunology and melds together different aspects of molecular immunology, immunobiology and clinical immunology.

Immunology is the branch of biomedical science that deals with the response of an organism to antigenic challenge and its recognition of what is self and what is not. It deals with the defense mechanisms including all physical, chemical and biological properties of the organism that help it to combat its susceptibility to foreign organisms, material, etc

Immunology has its origins in the study of how the body protects itself against infectious diseases caused by microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi, and also parasitic organisms, such as helminth worms. Research / review articles deals with, among other things, the physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health and disease; malfunctions of the immune system in immunological disorders (autoimmune diseases, hypersensitivities, immune deficiency, transplant rejection); the physical, chemical and physiological characteristics of the components of the immune system in vitro, in situ, and in vivo are of prime interest.




Iman Ibrahim Thabet Moustafa shabana

Associate Professor

Dr. Iman Ibrahim Shabana, an associate professor at  Bacteriology, Immunology and Mycology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Egypt. She obtained Ph.D. in Molecular Bacteriology at the Public Health Division of the Department of Infectious Disease Control and International Medicine at the Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences of Niigata University as a fellow in a scholarship program. And is working as an associate professor at Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Taibah University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

She is the first to conduct studies on diarrheagenic  E. coli on the molecular level and determining its MLST and clones in Egypt. her contribution in Molecular Biology especially molecular bacteriology has been recognized at home and abroad and her research work has been published in peer-reviewed research papers in national / international scientific journals. She is the editor of several Internal Scientific Journals including; Austin Journal of clinical Immunology, Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry, Kenkyu Journal of AIDS & Clinical Trials, Jacobs journal of veterinary science and research, Aperito Journal of Bacteriology, Virology and Parasitology, Jacobs Journal of Genetics, SM Journal of  Infectious Diseases, Advanced Techniques in Clinical Microbiology, Journal of Bacteriology and Vaccine Research, Journal of Immunology Forecast, and Journal of Molecular Microbiology.

She has been the principal/co-principal investigator of several research projects funded by different funding agencies in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

She lectures widely on Bacteria, Fungi, and Immunity to undergraduate students since 2001 to date on regular basis. In addition to advanced courses to master and Ph.D. research scholars. 


Suez canal University, Faculty of veterinary medicine

Bachelor of veterinary medicine sciences (Very Good Honors).    2001                                 

Master of Bacteriology, Immunology and Mycology.                     2005

Philosophy degree of Bacteriology, Immunology and Mycology.   2011

  • Research project No. MS-35-34 entitled "The impact of viral infection on sheep susceptibility to bacterial infection " funded by King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia.
  • Research project No. 1435-6188 entitled "Molecular characterization of Diarrheagenic E. coli in humans and animals" funded by the deanship of scientific research, Taibah University, Saudi Arabia.
  • Research project No. SR-D-011-891 entitled "clinical, laboratory, experimental studies on the complications due to contamination of contact lenses by bacteria" funded by the deanship of scientific research, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia.
  • Research project No. 4378018- entitled " Determination of Multilocus sequence types (MLST) of diarrhea-associated Escherichia coli isolated from humans and meat animals in Saudi Arabia " funded by the deanship of scientific research, Taibah University, Saudi Arabia.
  • A member of American Association for science and technology (ASSCIT).
  • A member of The Science Advisory Board.
  • On the editorial board of Austin Journal of clinical Immunology.
  • On the editorial board of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry
  • On the editorial board of Kenkyu Journal of AIDS & Clinical Trials
  • On the editorial board of Jacobs journal of veterinary science and research.
  • On the editorial board of Aperito Journal of Bacteriology, Virology and Parasitology
  • On the editorial board of Jacobs Journal of Genetics
  • On the editorial board of SM Journal of  Infectious Diseases
  • On the editorial board of Advanced Techniques in Clinical Microbiology
  • On the editorial board of Journal of Bacteriology and Vaccine Research
  • On the editorial board of Journal of Immunology Forecast
  • On the editorial board of Journal of Molecular Microbiology.
  • Reviewer for Jsci med central journals.
  • Reviewer for the Journal of Infection in Developing Countries.
  • Reviewer for the International Journal of Agricultural Policy and Research.
  • Reviewer for Issues in Biological Sciences and Pharmaceutical Research.
  • Reviewer for Journal of Microbiology and Antimicrobials (JMA).
  • Reviewer for International Journal of Health Sciences (Qassim University).
  • Reviewer for International journal of environmental science and toxicology (IJEST)
  • Reviewer for Journal of veterinary science and research.

International publications:

  1. Genomic events contributing to the high prevalence of amantadine-resistant influenza A/H3N2.   Zaraket H, Saito R, Suzuki Y, Suzuki Y, Caperig-Dapat I, Dapat C, Shabana II, Baranovich T, Suzuki H. Antivir Ther. 2010;15(3):307-19.
  2. Emergence of H274Y oseltamivir-resistant A(H1N1) influenza viruses in Japan during the 2008-2009 season. Baranovich T, Saito R, Suzuki Y, Zaraket H, Dapat C, Caperig-Dapat I, Oguma T, Shabana II, Saito T, Suzuki H; Japanese Influenza Collaborative Study Group.J Clin Virol. 2010 Jan;47(1):23-8. Epub 2009 Dec 3.
  3. Molecular characterization and susceptibility of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates from hospitals and the community in Vladivostok, Russia.Baranovich T, Zaraket H, Shabana II, Nevzorova V, Turcutyuicov V, Suzuki H.Clin Microbiol Infect. 2010 Jun;16(6):575-82. Epub 2009 Aug 4.
  4. Molecular studies on diarrhea-associated Escherichia coli isolated from humans and animals in Egypt. Shabana, I.I., Zaraket H, Suzuki H.Vet Microbiol. 2013 Aug 29.
  5. Diagnosis of Escherichia coli using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Hamza M. Ibrahim, Mohamed E. Enany, Shabana, I.I. Nature and science, 2011.
  6. Molecular typing of the enteroaggregative E.coli heat-stable enterotoxin 1 gene (EAST1) in E. coli strains isolated from human and calves with diarrhea. Shabana, I.I. et al GASJ; 1(1):1128-1138, 2013.
  7. Detection of the Enteroaggregative Heat-Stable Enterotoxin 1 Nucleotide Sequences among Diarrhegenic Escherichia coliShabana, I.I. Austin Journal of Clinical Immunology.
  8. ESCHERICHIA COLI PATHOTYPES ASSOCIATED WITH DIARRHEA IN HUMAN AND DOMESTIC ANIMALS. Shabana, I.I. American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences 9 (3): 153-159, 2014.
  9. Detection of Virulence Genes in Salmonella Serovars Isolated from Broilers. Ezzat M. E., Shabana I.I., Esawy A. M., Elsotohy M. E. Animal and Veterinary Sciences. Vol. 2, No. 6, 2014, pp. 189-193. doi: 10.11648/j.avs.20140206.16.
  10. Antimicrobial Activities of Unconventional Compounds against Some Bacteria Associated with Skin Infections in Humans, Sheep and Goats. Iman Shabana and Amira El-Adly. American Journal of Applied Sciences 2016, 13 (1): 36.45.
  11. Effect of Electromagnetic Fields on Aeromonas hydrophila Isolated from Cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromas niloticus). S.M. Aly, I. I. Shabana and N.M. Abdel Atti. Journal of pure and applied microbiology, May 2015. Vol. 9(Spl. Edn. 1), p. 325-332.
  12. Detection of Virulence-Associated Genes of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) Isolated from Broiler. Elsayed ME, Shabana II, Esawy AM, Rashed AM. Jacob journal of genetics. 2015;1(1): 004.
  13. Prevalence and characterization of Esherichia coli isolated from apparently healthy and diseased Cockatiles and budgerigars. A. A. R. Khafagy, M. A. Moustafa, I. S. Ibrahim, Shabana, I.I. and I. M. F. Khalifa.  Global Animal Science Journal-GASJ 2(1):1248-1252; 2015.
  14. Prevalence and  molecular characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolates from human and sheep in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah. Eman Fathi Sharafa, Iman I. Shabana. INFECT-116; No. of Pages 8.
  15. Investigation of viral and bacterial enteropathogens of diarrheic sheep and goats in Medina, Saudi Arabia. Shabana, I.I,  Bouqellah, N. A., Zaraket, H. Tropical Biomedicine Vol. 34 issue 4 (2017).
  16. Studies on Bacterial Pathogens in Some Marine Fishes in EL-Mansoura, Egypt. Elsayed Mahmoud Ezzat, Essawy Mahmoud,  Shabana Iman Ibrahim,  Abou El-Atta Mohamed and EL-Banna, Noha. American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences 2018, DOI: 10.3844/ajabssp.2018.
  17. Evaluation of genetic variation, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of two sidr varieties in medina. Salwa Fahmy Badr, Nahla A. El-Sherif, Shabana Iman Ibrahim, Mai El-Deeb, Fatma Yahya Mohammed AL-Shinqiti. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. No.444 on Future Issue panel of webpage.

Local publications:

  1. Molecular diagnosis of Shigatoxin (Verotoxin)- producing Escheirichia coli (O157:H7) Isolates from Egypt and Japan. Mohamed E. Enany, Shabana, I.I., Soumaya S.A El-shafii, Hamza M. Ibrahim, Suzuki H. 2009; 4:73-81.
  2. A comparison between the traditional and the molecular methods in the diagnosis of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. Mohamed E. Enany, Shabana, I.I., Soumaya S.A El-shafii, Hamza M. Ibrahim, Suzuki H. SCVMJ international conference. 2010.
  3. Characterization, antimicrobial drug resistance and PCR detection of E.coli isolated from quails in North Sinai Governorate. Shabana, I.I. ,Abd El-Azem El-Gamal, Nour El-Houda Abd-Allah  El-Mattary. N S V M. 2012. 1, 23-29.
  4. Molecular characterization of pathogenic E.coli isolated from meat and their products. Marwa Abd El-Hak, Ezzat, M., shabana, I.I. and Gihan M.O.Mohamed. scvmj, X (1) 2012
  5. Characterization of Aeromonas hydrophila complex isolated from foods of animal origin. Enany, M.E., Shalaby, A.M., Shabana, I.I., El-Gammal, A.M and Marwa E.Hassan. scvmj, XVIII (2) 2013.
  6. Isolation of Common Bacteria Causing Urinary Tract Infections in Pet Animals and Human. Ezzat, M, Shabana, I.I., Mandour, A. S., Hend, A. A. Suez Canal Veterinary Medicine Journal, XX, No. (1), June, 2015.
  7. Molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from meat, milk and their products. Ezzat, M, Shabana, I.I., Riad, E.M, Sarah, M. A. Suez Canal Veterinary Medicine Journal, XIX, No. (1), 2014.
  8. Hematoporphyrin–mediated photosensitization of aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus species isolated from meat products. Amira A. El –adly, Iman I. Shabana, Nahla A. Bouqellah. Egypt. J. Exp. Biol. (Bot.), 13(2): 259 – 268 (2017).
  9. Antimicrobial Activity of Green Silver Nanoparticles against Fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans in Animal Model.  Amira El-adly and Iman Shabana. Egypt. J. Bot., Vol. 58, No, 1. pp. (2018).