International Journal of Immunology is a peer-reviewed open access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of immunology. Immunology is a diverse and growing discipline that can be defined as the study of the tissues, cells and molecules involved in host defense mechanisms. Immunologists attempt to understand how the immune system develops, how the body defends itself against disease, and what happens when it all goes wrong. Priority is given to work that provides fundamental insight into the workings of the immune system. Areas covered include, but are not limited to, innate immunity and inflammation; development; immune receptors, signaling and apoptosis; antigen presentation; gene regulation and recombination; cellular and systemic immunity; vaccines; immune tolerance; autoimmunity and tumor immunology, microbial immunopathology; and transplantation.

The great advances in immunology in recent years make this field one of the most dynamic and rapidly growing in biological sciences. This remarkable growth is stimulated by the influx of investigators from other disciplines such as biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, microbiology, virology and various medical disciplines. These disciplines are so well interlinked with immunology that no immunological challenge can now be properly addressed without sophisticated applications of expertise of combinations of these disciplines. As a consequence, immunology has become a vast and rich field encompassing discoveries and outlooks that range from the highly clinical to the highly molecular. Although such perspectives may appear diverse, they are, in fact, extremely interdependent. The journal seeks to present a balanced overview of contemporary immunology and melds together different aspects of molecular immunology, immunobiology and clinical immunology.

Immunology is the branch of biomedical science that deals with the response of an organism to antigenic challenge and its recognition of what is self and what is not. It deals with the defense mechanisms including all physical, chemical and biological properties of the organism that help it to combat its susceptibility to foreign organisms, material, etc

Immunology has its origins in the study of how the body protects itself against infectious diseases caused by microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi, and also parasitic organisms, such as helminth worms. Research / review articles deals with, among other things, the physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health and disease; malfunctions of the immune system in immunological disorders (autoimmune diseases, hypersensitivities, immune deficiency, transplant rejection); the physical, chemical and physiological characteristics of the components of the immune system in vitro, in situ, and in vivo are of prime interest.




Marcella Reale

Associate Professor

Dr. Reale isauthor of more than 150 international publications indexed in Medline (h-index 31 Web of Science; h-index 32, and 3721 citations Scopus; 43,07 RG score).

The main scientific interest of Dr. Reale are the inflammatory responses and neurodegeneration, including the cytokines/chemokines network, mechanisms for a7nAChR–based pathways in establishing production of inflammatory cytokines as possible strategies for the rapeutical intervention by new drugs in allergy, autoimmune diseases and neurodegeneration. Her publications include first authorship in studies on cytokines and inflammationon neurodegenerative diseases. She is also first or senior author of  highly cited articles in the field of  EMF effects on biological systems and she is a senior author of cited articles on Probiotics and HIV. She has many year of experience in research laboratory management and leadership. She enjoys teaching under graduate and graduate medicine students at G.d’Annunzio” University.  She is referee of 35 National and International Journals, and member of International EditorialBoards. She leads innumerable collaborations facilitating international knowledge transfer. 


Current Research

  • Cholinergic system and neurodegenerative diseses
  • Cholinergic system, cytokines and autoimmunity
  • EMF and biological system
  • Sleep disorders and immunity

Interested topics

  • Impact of EMF exposure on wound healing
  • Job stress/life balance/immunity
  • Patient safety
  • Outcomes
  • InstitutoCajal-Instituto CSIC, Madrid:  Cholinergic Markers, and Amyloid-β  in the APPSWE/PS1dE9 Mouse
  • Charitè-Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin: Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Exposure  and Serotonin Metabolism
  • Università di Pisa, Dept of Experimental Medicine:Adipokines and Multiple Sclerosis
  • Università “la  Sapienza” Deptofi Biology and  Biotechnology Charles Darwin, Rome
  • Italia
  • Novel Global Community Educational Foundation, 7 Peterlee Place, Hebersham, NSW 2770, Australia
  • National Institute of Health, USA:  Acetyl- and Butyryl-cholinesterase Inhibitors as prospective therapeutic agents
  • Department of Immunology, Complutense University School of Medicine, Madrid, Spain
    : Autoimmunity
  • “Anti-Inflammatory strategy: old ally or new promise in therapy” In Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry.
  • “Neuroinflammation, AD, and Dementia” in  Int.J. Alzheimer’s Disease.
  • “Modulation of Cholinergic System Activity in Neuronal  and Non-Neuronal Tissues: Therapeutic Implications” In Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry.
  • “Neurodegenerative  Disorders: Synthesis, Drug Delivery Strategies and Biological  Evaluation of new Therapeutic Agents” in  Central Nervous System Agents in medicinal Chemistry.
  • “Immune and Inflammatory-Mediated Disorders: From Bench to  Bedside. In  J. Immunology Res (In press)
  • Over 150 peer-review publications
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