International Journal of Immunology is a peer-reviewed open access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of immunology. Immunology is a diverse and growing discipline that can be defined as the study of the tissues, cells and molecules involved in host defense mechanisms. Immunologists attempt to understand how the immune system develops, how the body defends itself against disease, and what happens when it all goes wrong. Priority is given to work that provides fundamental insight into the workings of the immune system. Areas covered include, but are not limited to, innate immunity and inflammation; development; immune receptors, signaling and apoptosis; antigen presentation; gene regulation and recombination; cellular and systemic immunity; vaccines; immune tolerance; autoimmunity and tumor immunology, microbial immunopathology; and transplantation.

The great advances in immunology in recent years make this field one of the most dynamic and rapidly growing in biological sciences. This remarkable growth is stimulated by the influx of investigators from other disciplines such as biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, microbiology, virology and various medical disciplines. These disciplines are so well interlinked with immunology that no immunological challenge can now be properly addressed without sophisticated applications of expertise of combinations of these disciplines. As a consequence, immunology has become a vast and rich field encompassing discoveries and outlooks that range from the highly clinical to the highly molecular. Although such perspectives may appear diverse, they are, in fact, extremely interdependent. The journal seeks to present a balanced overview of contemporary immunology and melds together different aspects of molecular immunology, immunobiology and clinical immunology.

Immunology is the branch of biomedical science that deals with the response of an organism to antigenic challenge and its recognition of what is self and what is not. It deals with the defense mechanisms including all physical, chemical and biological properties of the organism that help it to combat its susceptibility to foreign organisms, material, etc

Immunology has its origins in the study of how the body protects itself against infectious diseases caused by microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi, and also parasitic organisms, such as helminth worms. Research / review articles deals with, among other things, the physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health and disease; malfunctions of the immune system in immunological disorders (autoimmune diseases, hypersensitivities, immune deficiency, transplant rejection); the physical, chemical and physiological characteristics of the components of the immune system in vitro, in situ, and in vivo are of prime interest.




Refat Sadeq


Professor Refa’t Sadeq was born in Mansoura. He earned a Ph. D Degree in Medical Microbiology, Master’s Degree in Medical Microbiology, a M.B.B.Ch in Medicine from Zagazig faculty of Medicine(Egypt). He is Adjunct Clinical Professor at the University of Port said College of Medicine, Egypt.
Sadeq is an energetic, motivating and highly skilled consultant specializing in Life Balance,corporate training programs and motivational speaking presentations. His background includesmore than 40 years of experience as an educator and clinician in all settings in which care isprovided. He has taught around the country and across the globe, leading delegations of microbiology specialists to diverse countries. A member of the Egyptian medical Association and a member of the Egyptian Society for Professionals in microbiology,.

Current Research

  • Plasma sterilization
  • Hepatitis C virus
  • Infection control

Interested topics

  • Treatment of HCV
  • Restricted antibiotics
  • Patient safety


  • 1975 – Faculty Appointment, The Zagazig Medical School
  • 1978 – Certification, M.Sc (Medical Microbiology & Immunology)
  • 1982 – Certification, Ph. D. (Medical Microbiology & Immunology)
  • 1988 – Assist. Prof. of Medical Microbiology & Immunology
  • 1994 –  Prof. of Medical Microbiology & Immunology
  • 2002 Fellow Member of National graduating committee for Assistant Prof. and Prof. in Medical Microbiology (12 years).
  • 2002 – Research and Education Committee, Zagazig faculty of Medicine
  • 2005 – Co ordinator of infection control unit in Zagazig University hospitals (10 years)
  • 2007 – Prof. and Head of Medical Microbiology & Immunology Dept. faculty of Medicine Zagazig Univ.
  • 2008 – Member of National graduating committee for Assistant Prof. and Prof. in Medical Microbiology.(6 years)
  • 2009 – Editor in Chief of Zagazig University Medical Journal. (5 years)
  • 2009 – Chair, Allergy unit Zagazig faculty of Medicine (4 years)
  • 2014 – Prof. and Head of Medical Microbiology & Immunology Dept. faculty of Medicine Port saidUniv.(4 years and still)
  • Notes in Basic Microbiology 2016
  • Notes in Clinical Microbiology 2016
  • Notes in Medical Parasitology 2017
  • Notes in Medical Microbiology for nurses 2014
  • Over 100 peer-review publications
Share on facebook Share on twitter Share on linkedin Share on reddit Share on mail
Whatsapp Icon