International Journal of Immunology is a peer-reviewed open access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of immunology. Immunology is a diverse and growing discipline that can be defined as the study of the tissues, cells and molecules involved in host defense mechanisms. Immunologists attempt to understand how the immune system develops, how the body defends itself against disease, and what happens when it all goes wrong. Priority is given to work that provides fundamental insight into the workings of the immune system. Areas covered include, but are not limited to, innate immunity and inflammation; development; immune receptors, signaling and apoptosis; antigen presentation; gene regulation and recombination; cellular and systemic immunity; vaccines; immune tolerance; autoimmunity and tumor immunology, microbial immunopathology; and transplantation.

The great advances in immunology in recent years make this field one of the most dynamic and rapidly growing in biological sciences. This remarkable growth is stimulated by the influx of investigators from other disciplines such as biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, microbiology, virology and various medical disciplines. These disciplines are so well interlinked with immunology that no immunological challenge can now be properly addressed without sophisticated applications of expertise of combinations of these disciplines. As a consequence, immunology has become a vast and rich field encompassing discoveries and outlooks that range from the highly clinical to the highly molecular. Although such perspectives may appear diverse, they are, in fact, extremely interdependent. The journal seeks to present a balanced overview of contemporary immunology and melds together different aspects of molecular immunology, immunobiology and clinical immunology.

Immunology is the branch of biomedical science that deals with the response of an organism to antigenic challenge and its recognition of what is self and what is not. It deals with the defense mechanisms including all physical, chemical and biological properties of the organism that help it to combat its susceptibility to foreign organisms, material, etc

Immunology has its origins in the study of how the body protects itself against infectious diseases caused by microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi, and also parasitic organisms, such as helminth worms. Research / review articles deals with, among other things, the physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health and disease; malfunctions of the immune system in immunological disorders (autoimmune diseases, hypersensitivities, immune deficiency, transplant rejection); the physical, chemical and physiological characteristics of the components of the immune system in vitro, in situ, and in vivo are of prime interest.




Ahmed Ibrahim Akl

Fellow of the American Society of Nephrology (FASN).                                    1993  (From Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, Egypt)

M . Sc  (Internal Medicine)        2000 (From Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, Egypt)

ILETs                                          2003 (From Kings school, Oxford University, UK )

MD, PhD (Internal Medicine)    2007 (From Benha University, Egypt)


    Neural networks model for studying urea kinetics and prediction of the time of hemodialysis                session in chronic hemodialysis patients.
    A. Akl, M. Sobh, Y. Enab and J. Tattersall,
    Urology & Nephrology Center, Mansoura, Egypt.
    XXXVI Congress of the European Dialysis and Transplantation Association, Madrid, Spain,                September, 6-9, 1999.
2- Holder of excellence prize in Nephrology and transplantation practice for the year 2001, The urology and Nephrology centre, Mansoura University, EGYPT (2001).
3- Internal Medicine science prize (Professor Fakhry), The Egyptian Academy   of The Scientific Research and Technology, (2002).
4- Distinguished fellow’s Award, The International Society of Nephrology (ISN), Singapore, June 2005.
5- The Best Research Paper in transplantation, Prof. El Hussieni El Ghoniemi Prize, Arab society of nephrology and transplantation, Pan arab congress IX, Amman, Jordan April 2006.
6- Abdel Hamid Shoman foundation prize, Best Arab Medical research 2008, Amman, Jordan.
7- ISN EDUCATION AMBASSADOR 2013 and currently.

1- Akl AI, Sobh MA, Enab YM, Tattersall J.: Artificial intelligence: a new approach for prescription and monitoring of hemodialysis therapy. Am J Kidney Dis. 38(6):1277-83, 2001.     

2- KJ Wood, S Luo, and A Akl: Regulatory T cells: potential in organ transplantation. Transplantation J. 77 (1): S6–S8, 2004.

3- Akl A, Luo S, Wood KJ: Induction of transplantation tolerance-the potential of regulatory T cells. Transplant immunology 14:225-230, 2005.

4- Sobh M, Neamatallah A, Sheashaa H, Akl A, Osman Y, Gad H, Eletrby M and Hegazy A: Sobh formula: A new formula for estimation of creatinine clearance in healthy subjects and patients with chronic renal disease. International Urology and Nephrology, 37:403-408, 2005.

5- Akl A, Jones ND, Rogers N, Bakr MA, Mostafa A, El Shehawy El M, Ghoneim MA and Wood KJ :An investigation to assess the potential of CD25(high)CD4 (+) T cells to regulate responses to donor alloantigens in clinically stable renal transplant recipients. Transplant Int. 2008 Jan; 21(1):65-73.(mini review)

6- Ahmed Akl, Amani mostafa and Mohamed Ahmed Ghoneim : Nomogram That Predicts Graft Survival Probability Following Living-Donor Kidney Transplant. Exp Clin Transplant. 2008 March; 1:30-36.

7- Akl A, Ismail AM, Ghoneim M. Prediction of graft survival of living-donor kidney transplantation: nomograms or artificial neural networks? . Transplantation. 2008 Nov 27; 86(10):1401-6.

8-El-Mekresh M, Akl A, Mosbah A, Abdel-Latif M, Abol-Enein H, Ghoneim MA. Prediction of survival after radical cystectomy for invasive bladder carcinoma: risk group stratification, nomograms or artificial neural networks? J Urol. 2009 Aug; 182(2):466-72.

9- Leone F, Akl A, Giral M, Dantal J, Blancho G, Soulillou JP, Cantarovich D. Six months anti-viral prophylaxis significantly decreased cytomegalovirus disease compared with no anti-viral  prophylaxis following renal transplantation. Transpl Int. 2010 Sep; 23(9):897-906.

10- Gheith O, Ammar H, Akl A, Hamdy A, El-Saeed M, El-Salamouny T, Bakr MA, Ghoneim M. Spinal compression by brown tumor in two patients with chronic kidney allograft failure on maintenance hemodialysis. Iran J Kidney Dis. 2010 Jul;4(3):256-9.

11- Foucher Y, Daguin P, Akl A, Kessler M, Ladrière M, Legendre C, Kreis H, Rostaing L, Kamar N, Mourad G, Garrigue V, Bayle F, de Ligny BH, Büchler M, Meier C, Daurès JP, Soulillou JP, Giral M. A clinical scoring system highly predictive of long-term kidney graft survival. Kidney Int. 2010 Dec; 78(12):1288-94. PMID: 20861817.

12- Cantarovich D, De Amicis S, Akl A, Devys A, Vistoli F, Karam G, Soulillou JP. Posttransplant Donor-Specific Anti-HLA Antibodies Negatively Impact Pancreas Transplantation Outcome. Am J Transplant. 2011 Dec; 11(12):2737-46. PMID: 21906255.

13-Ehab W. Wafa, Ahmed A. Shokeir, Ahmed Akl, Nabil Hassan,Mohamed A. Fouda, Kalid El Dahshan, Mohamed A. Ghoneim. Effect of donor and recipient variables on the long-term live-donor renal allograft survival in children. Arab Journal of Urology 2011; 9:85-91.

14- Shebel HM, Akl A1, Dawood A, El-Diasty TA, Shokeir AA, Ghoneim MA. Power doppler sonography in early renal transplantation: does it differentiate acute graft rejection from acute tubular necrosis? Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2014 Jul;25(4):733-40.

15-Ghoneim MA1, Bakr MA, Refaie AF, Akl AI, Shokeir AA, Shehab El-Dein AB, Ammar HM, Ismail AM, Sheashaa HA, El-Baz MA. Factors affecting graft survival among patients receiving kidneys from live donors: a single-center experience. Biomed Res Int. 2013; 2013:912413. PMID: 23878820.

16-Degauque N, Ngono AE, Akl A, Lepetit M, Crochette R, Giral M, Lepourry J, Pallier A, Castagnet S, Dugast E, Guillot-Gueguen C, Jacq-Foucher M, Saulquin X, Cesbron A, Laplaud D, Nicot A, Brouard S, Soulillou JP. Characterization of antigen-specific B cells using nominal antigen-coated flow-beads. PLoS One. 2013 Dec 30; 8 (12):e84273.

17-Foucher Y1, Akl A, Rousseau V, Trébern-Launay K, Lorent M, Kessler M, Ladrière M, Legendre C, Kreis H, Rostaing L, Kamar N, Mourad G, Garrigue V, Morelon E, Buron F, Daurès JP, Soulillou JP, Giral M. An alternative approach to estimate age-related mortality of kidney transplant recipients compared to the general population: results in favor of old-to-old transplantations. Transpl Int. 2014 Feb; 27 (2):219-25. PMID: 24236869

18-Sarraj B, Ye J, Akl AI, Chen G, Wang JJ, Zhang Z, Abadja F, Abecassis M, Miller SD, Kansas GS, Ansari MJ. Impaired selectin-dependent leukocyte recruitment induces T-cell exhaustion and prevents chronic allograft vasculopathy and rejection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Aug 19;111(33):12145-50. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1303676111.

19-Fouad M, Abdellatif M, Hagag M, Akl A. Prediction of long term living donor kidney graft outcome: Comparison between different Machine Learning Methods. Ijct. 2014 Dec 9; 14(2):5419-31.

20-Nagib AM, Refaie AF, Akl AI, Neamatalla AH, Fouda MA, et al. (2015)

New Onset Diabetes Mellitus after Living Donor Renal Transplantation: A Unique

Pattern in the Egyptian Population. J Diabetes Metab 6: 519. doi:10.4172/2155-


21-Akl A, Neamatalla AH, Nagib AM, Bakr AM, Foda A (2015) Comparative Analysis of Long Term Survival of Pediatric and Adult Living Donor Renal Transplantation: Single Center 10 Years Experience. Urol Nephrol Open Access J 2(3): 00040. DOI: 10.15406/unoaj.2015.02.00040.

22- Maha Fouad, Mohamoud M Abd Ellatif, Mohamed Hagag, Ahmed Akl. Prediction of Long Term Living Donor Kidney Graft Outcome: Comparison Between Rule Based, Decision Tree and Linear Regression. IJARCST. 2015; 3(2):185.

23-Akl AI, Adel H, Rahim MA, Wafa EW, Shokeir AA. Outcome of glomerulonephritis in live-donor renal transplant recipients: A single-centre experience. Arab J Urol. 2015 Dec;13(4):295-305.

24- Ahmed Akl, Abdalla Sidahmed Mohamed, Naeim Salah, Mubarak Al-Shraim, Ahmed Nassar, Khalid Al-Alshiekh. Post Subtotal Thyroidectomy Calciphylaxis with Normal Calcium Phosphorus Product Following Kidney Transplantation: A Case Report. Urol Nephrol Open Access J 2016, 3(1): 00060.

25- Mohamed Alsaid, Essam Elsawy, Ahmed AKL, Ahmed Mosaad, Hany Adel, Mohamed Altayyeb, Yasser Farag, Ahmed Donia, Hussein Sheashaa, Mohamed Adel Bakr, Ayman Refaie. H1N1 Infection among Egyptian Renal Transplant Recipients. Urol Nephrol Open Access J 2016, 3(1): 00065.

26- Ahmed Akl, Mohamed A Megahd, Muhammed A El Hadedy, Ahmed H Neamatalla, Ayman M Nagib, Hussein A Sheashaa, Ehab W Wafa, Mohamed Ashraf Fouda, Ayman F. Refaie, Hossam Gad, Tarek El Diasty. Improvement of Renovascular Malignant Hypertension after Angioplasty. Urol Nephrol Open Access J 2016, 3(2): 00069. 

27- Yasser Elsayed Matter, Ayman M Nagib, Omar E Lotfy, Ahmed Maher Alsayed, Ahmed F Donia, Ayman F Refaie, Ahmed I Akl, Mohamed Hamed Abbas, Mohammed M Abuelmagd, Hussein A Shaeashaa, Ahmed A Shokeir. Impact of Donor Source on the Outcome of Live Donor Kidney Transplantation: A Single Center Experience. Nephrourol Mon. 2016 May; 8(3): e34770.

28- Mohammed El-Rashedy, Ahmed Akl. Hemodialysis mining and patients intelligent clustering technologies. JESNT 2016, 16:124–130.

29- Elsaftawy MM, Akl A.  Approach to Post Kidney Transplantation Anemia. Urol Nephrol Open Access J. 2017; 4(5): 00140.

30- Ahmed I. Akl, Hussein A. Sheashaa, Mona Abdel Rahim, Mohamed M. Abu-Elmagd, Muhammed A. El Hadedy, Ayman F. Refaie. Refractory CD20 Positive Cellular Rejection in Living Kidney Transplantation: A Case Report and review of Literature. Accepted in press Experimental & Clinical Transplantation Journal.

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