International Journal of Immunology is a peer-reviewed open access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of immunology. Immunology is a diverse and growing discipline that can be defined as the study of the tissues, cells and molecules involved in host defense mechanisms. Immunologists attempt to understand how the immune system develops, how the body defends itself against disease, and what happens when it all goes wrong. Priority is given to work that provides fundamental insight into the workings of the immune system. Areas covered include, but are not limited to, innate immunity and inflammation; development; immune receptors, signaling and apoptosis; antigen presentation; gene regulation and recombination; cellular and systemic immunity; vaccines; immune tolerance; autoimmunity and tumor immunology, microbial immunopathology; and transplantation.

The great advances in immunology in recent years make this field one of the most dynamic and rapidly growing in biological sciences. This remarkable growth is stimulated by the influx of investigators from other disciplines such as biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, microbiology, virology and various medical disciplines. These disciplines are so well interlinked with immunology that no immunological challenge can now be properly addressed without sophisticated applications of expertise of combinations of these disciplines. As a consequence, immunology has become a vast and rich field encompassing discoveries and outlooks that range from the highly clinical to the highly molecular. Although such perspectives may appear diverse, they are, in fact, extremely interdependent. The journal seeks to present a balanced overview of contemporary immunology and melds together different aspects of molecular immunology, immunobiology and clinical immunology.

Immunology is the branch of biomedical science that deals with the response of an organism to antigenic challenge and its recognition of what is self and what is not. It deals with the defense mechanisms including all physical, chemical and biological properties of the organism that help it to combat its susceptibility to foreign organisms, material, etc

Immunology has its origins in the study of how the body protects itself against infectious diseases caused by microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi, and also parasitic organisms, such as helminth worms. Research / review articles deals with, among other things, the physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health and disease; malfunctions of the immune system in immunological disorders (autoimmune diseases, hypersensitivities, immune deficiency, transplant rejection); the physical, chemical and physiological characteristics of the components of the immune system in vitro, in situ, and in vivo are of prime interest.




Tamara Salloum


2016-Present  PhD, Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, NewCastle University, UK; (Project title: Leishmania Pathogenomics and Genome Evolution in the Era of Whole-Genome Sequencing)

2013-2015     M.S in Molecular Biology (Emphasis on Microbiology) at the Lebanese American University-Byblos (GPA by Spring 2015: 3.88/4.0)

2010-2013     B.S. in Biology at the Lebanese American University- Byblos

2010-2013     Minor in Chemistry at the Lebanese American University-Byblos

-Graduated with High Distinction

-Merit Scholarship student (100% Scholarship)

-Member of Honor Society at LAU (2012-2013)

-Cumulative GPA 3.85/4.0 (Spring 2013)

Subjects studied: Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Maths, Psychology, English and other LAC courses.
Familiar with conventional microbiology techniques, PCR methods, sequencing, MS/MS, bioinformatics tools, posters etc.

1997-2009    Collège Saint-Coeur - Batroun  


  1. Tokajian, S., Issa, N., Salloum, T., Ibrahim, J., and Farah, M2016. 16S-23S rRNA Gene Intergenic Spacer Region Variability Helps Resolve Closely Related Sphingomonads. Front. Microbiol. 7:149.
  2. Tokajian, S., Eisen, J., Jospin, G., Hamze, M., Rafei, R., Salloum, T., Ibrahim, J., Coil, D. 2016. Draft Genome Sequences of Acinetobacter baumannii Strains Harboring the blaNDM-1 Gene Isolated in Lebanon from Civilians Wounded during the Syrian Civil War. Genome Announc.  4:e01678-15;doi:10.1128/genomeA.01678-15.
  3. Salloum, T., Khalifeh, I., Tokajian, S. 2016. Detection, molecular typing and phylogenetic analysis of Leishmania isolated from cases of leishmaniasis among Syrian refugees in Lebanon. Para Epidem Cont. 1:159-168.
  4. Tokajian, S., Salloum, T., Eisen, J. A., Jospin, G., Farra, A., Mokhbat, J. E., & Coil, D. A. (2017). Genomic attributes of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolated from patients in Lebanon. Future Microbiology, 12(3), 213-226.
  5. Salloum, T., Arabaghian, H., Alousi, S., Abboud, E., & Tokajian, S. (2017). Genome Sequencing and Comparative Analysis of an NDM-1-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST15 Isolated from A Refugee Patient. Pathogens and Global Health, 111(4): 166-175.
  6. Abou Zaki, N., Salloum, T., Osman, M., Rafei, R., Hamze, M., & Tokajian, S. (2017). Typing and comparative genome analysis of Brucella melitensis isolated from Lebanon.  FEMS Microbiology Letters, 364(19): fnx199. 
  7. Tokajian, S., Moghnieh, R., Salloum, T., Arabaghian, H., Alousi, S., Moussa, Abboud, E., Youssef, S., & Husni, R. (2017). Extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli in Wastewaters and Refugee Camp in Lebanon. Future microbiology, 13(1):81-95.
  8. Bitar, I., Dagher, C., Salloum, T., Araj, G., & Tokajian, S. (2018). First report of an Escherichia coli from Lebanon carrying an OXA-181-carbapenemase. Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance, 12:113-114
  9. Salloum, T., Tannous, E., Merheb-Ghoussoub, S., Ghoussoub, E., & Tokajian, S. (2018). Genome Analysis of a MDR Streptococcus pneumoniae 23F Serotype Causing Meningoencephalitis in a 10-months Refugee Infant" recently accepted in The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries.
  10. Currently Under Review:
    Salloum, T., Nassour, E., Araj, G., Abboud, E., & Tokajian, S. Insights into the Genome Diversity and Virulence of Two Clinical Isolates of Burkholderia cenocepacia; submitted for review on 21/11/2017 to Journal of Medical Microbiology (JMM-D-17-00821).
    Dagher, C., Salloum, T., Alousi, S., Arabaghian, H., Araj, G., and Tokajian S. Molecular Characterization of ESBL and Carbapenemases-producing Escherichia coli in a Tertiary Hospital in Lebanon; submitted for review to mBio on 7/2/2018 (mBio00318-18).

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