International journal of Nano Scientific Networks and Nanotechnology (IJNN) is a multidisciplinary, peer reviewed journal which includes all the major fields in nanotechnology and Nano science. Nanoscience and nanotechnology brought up an unprecedented excitement in the scientific and engineering communities, especially the last decade. It is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. This covers both current work and concepts that are more advanced.  International journal of Nano Scientific Networks and Nanotechnology   publishes original research papers during a broad area of nanoscience & engineering. IJNN provides an ideal forum for presenting original reports of theoretical and experimental nanoscience and nanotechnology research. Nanotechnology is a gathering of rising innovations in which the structure of matter is controlled at the nanometer scale, the size of little quantities of molecules, to create novel materials and gadgets that have valuable and one of kind properties. IJNN is naturally multidisciplinary, and welcomes submissions across biological, physical, engineering, and computer sciences. Contributions from both academia and industry are equally encouraged. IJNN also publishes innovative techniques and instrumentation for the fabrication, characterization and testing of nano-enabled devices and technologies, as well as advanced modelling and simulation methods.





Adjunct Professor


Ph.D. Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina. 2000.

        Concentration: Environmental Engineering

        Dissertation: “Dicarboximide Fungicide Flux to the Lower Troposphere from an Aquic Hapludult Soil”

        Committee: J.J. Peirce (Advisor); F. Boadu; D. Richter; andA. Schuler


M.S. Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 1996.

        Specialty:Environmental Health Sciences


M.S. City and Regional Planning, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, Illinois. 1977.

        Specialty: Environmental Planning


B.A. Earth Sciences & Psychology, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, Illinois. 1974.

-Environmental biotechnology

-Life cycle analysis (products and systems)

-Chemical screening and prioritization

-Exposure and risk assessment

-Atmospheric and environmental modeling

-Air pollution monitoring

-Emergency and disaster response

-Informed consent and institutional review board research procedures

-Biomedical and biosystem decision theory

-Fiber and aerosol measurement

-Fate and transport assessment of nanomaterials

-Soil-air exchange chamber engineering, design and operation

-Environmental chemistry

-Environmental sampling and field methods

-Chemical separation by gas and high performance liquid chromatography

-Analysis by ultraviolet absorption/diode array detection, flame ionization, electron capture, and mass spectroscopy

-Scanning and transmission electron microscopy

-Chemical sample preparation by solvent extraction and supercritical fluid extraction

-Collection of semi-volatile organic air pollutants by polyurethane foam trapping

-Laboratory chamber design

-Modeling of pollutant transport and transformation

-Statistics and data analysis

-R, JMP and Mathematica programming

-Physical and chemical characterization of endocrine disrupting chemicals and air toxics

-EPA field safety certification

-EPA laboratory safety certification

-Respirator user certification, fulfilling requirements of 29CFR1910.134

-Principal Investigator – Research Costing Compliance, Duke University (2007)

-Scientific and Technological Achievement Award, 2015, Level II, “ExpoCast High Throughput Framework for Rapid Prioritization of Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals,” Co-recipients:, R.W. Setzer, J.F. Wambaugh, E. Cohen Hubal, D.M. Reif, J. Mitchell-Blackwood, S. Gangwal, A. Frame, J. R. Rabinowitz, T.B. Knudsen, R.S. Judson, P.P. Egeghy, J. Arnot, and O. Jolliet.

-Top Ten Abstract. “A High-Throughput Exposure Estimation Tool Incorporating ADME Processes.” Society of Toxicology. Risk Assessment Specialty Section, 2015.

-Nominee, World Technology Award for Ethics, The World Technology Network,, 2014.

-Selection to Editorial Board of the Journal, Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 2014

-National Exposure Research Award, 2014, Exposure Science Excellence Award, Systems Reality Research Team

-Pathfinder Innovation Project Award, 2013, Systems Reality Modeling: Chemical Inventor. Team: Rocky Goldsmith, Daniel Chang, Curtis Dary, Peter Egeghy, Chris Grulke, Jade Mitchell-Blackwood, Cecilia Tan, Rogelio Tornero-Velez, Linda Phillips, and Daniel Vallero.

-Office of Research and Development Teamwork Award, 2012, Federal Highway Administration Near-Road Study.

-Scientific and Technological Achievement Award, 2010, Honorable Mention; Advancing Methods to Sample and Analyze Airborne Asbestos Fibers on Filter Media to Support Exposure Assessments; Co-recipients: J.R. Kominsky, M.E. Beard and O.S.Crankshaw

-Elected Member, International Federation of Medical and Biological Engineering, 2011

-Elected Member, National Institute of Engineering Ethics, 2010

-Selection to Editorial Board of the Journal, Ethics in Biology, Engineering and Medicine, 2010

- Award for Exceptional/Outstanding ORD Technical Assistance to the Regions or Program Offices, U.S. EPA, 2010

-Selection as Advisor to National Academy of Engineering, 2008

-Best Paper, 2006 (with P.A. Vesilind), American Society of Civil Engineers. Preventing disputes with fairness and empathy. Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice. 132 (3). 272-278

-Bronze Medals for Commendable Service, U.S. EPA, 1990, 1998 and 2005

-Recognition Award, Mechanistic Indicators of Childhood Asthma, Modeling Support, 2007

-Duke University Representative, National Academy of Engineering, Workshop on Emerging Technologies and Ethical Issues, October 2003

-Special Faculty Commendation, North Carolina Central University, 2003

-National Commendation, Excellence in Response, World Trade Center, U.S. EPA, 2002

-Best Qualified, Senior Executive Service Candidate Program, U.S. EPA, 2002

-Superior Accomplishment Award, 2001

-Award for Exceptional/Outstanding ORD Technical Assistance to the Regions or Program Offices, U.S. EPA, 2001

-Fourth Degree, Knights of Columbus, Dubbed in November 2000

-Jeffrey Taub Award, Duke University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 1999

-Executive Board, Sigma Xi, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill Chapter, 1999-2000

-Special Act Awards, U.S. EPA, 1980, 1990, 1993, 1997, 1998, 2000

-Performance Awards, 1994, 1995, 1997, 1998

-President, Sigma Xi, Kansas City Chapter, 1987; Vice President 1986

-Continued Superior Performance Awards, 1984-1989, 1996

-American Institute of Certified Planners, Certification Granted 1981

-Missouri Planner-in-Charge, 1978 and 1983

-Graduate Fellowship, Southern Illinois University, 1975-1976

-Graduated “With Honors,” Southern Illinois University, 1974

-Illinois State Scholarship, 1971-1974



-Full Member, American Society of Civil Engineers

-Member, American Society of Engineering Education

-Member, International Society of Exposure Science

-Affiliate, Association of Environmental Engineering and Science Professors

-Member, Science Advisory Board, Taconite Particulate Working Group, Lung Health Partnership, Minnesota Taconite Workers, University of Minnesota

-Faculty Member, Markets and Management Program, Duke University

-Faculty Member, Global Health Program, Duke University

-Advisor and Convener, Teaching GeoEthics Across the Geoscience Curriculum: Workshop 2014, Pray, Montana, June 10-13, 2014.

-Trustee, Deepwater Horizon EPA Response Team


-Member, National Institute of Engineering Ethics, Executive Board, 2010-2014

-Member, Online Ethics Committee, National Academy of Engineering, 2007-2012

-Judge, Ethics Bowl Competition, National Undergraduate Bioethics Conference

-Faculty Advisor, Engineers Without Borders, Duke Chapter, 2003-2009

-Mentor, Preparing Future Faculty, Council of Graduate Schools (Amani McHugh, 2007-2008; Kyle van Houtan, 2004-2005)

Faculty Member, First-year Opportunity for Comprehensive, Unified Study (Focus), Duke University

-Faculty Lead, Ethics across the Curriculum, Pratt School of Engineering, Duke University

-Member, Advisory Committee, National Science Foundation’s Collaborative Large-Scale Engineering Analysis Network for Environmental Research, Duke University and University of Illinois

-Member, Scientific Laboratory Utilization Assessment Committee, NCCU

-Reviewer, Grants-in-Aid Research, Sigma Xi, the Scientific Research Society, UNC Chapter

-Member, Executive Committee, Sigma Xi, the Scientific Research Society, UNC Chapter

-Advisor, Duke University Graduate School, Committee on Responsible Conduct of Research

-Chair, Duke University, Science, Technology and Human Values Advisory Group

-Faculty Consultant, Duke University, Information Science and Information Studies Program

-Judge, North Carolina State University, Environmental Engineering Student Poster Symposium

-Member, Duke University Task Force on Information Science and Information Studies

-Chair, Graduate Science Education Committee, NCCU, 2003.

-Member, Assistant Chancellor for Research, Search Committee, NCCU, 2003

-Member, Sigma Xi, the Scientific Research Society (Elected to Full Membership in 1985)

-Member, Air and Waste Management Association (inactive)

-Member, Society for Risk Analysis (inactive)

-Member, EPA Risk Assessment Forum, 1992-2002 (Reappointed in 1995 and 1998)

-Member, Neuse River Exposure Methods Team, 1998

-Contributor, Editorial Board, National Exposure Research Laboratory Newsletter, 1995-1997

-Member, Property Board of Survey, U.S. EPA, 1995-1998

-Member, Informational Work Group for Mercury, 1992-1993

-Member, Clean Air Act Biennial Assessment Committee, 1992-1993

-Member and Course Instructor, EPA Institute, 1990

-Chair, Region VII Macintosh Users’ Group, 1987-1990

-Former Member, American Institute of Certified Planners (full certification)

  1. Vallero, D. Air pollution monitoring changes to accompany the transition from a control to a systems focus. Sustainability. 2016. Accepted: November 18, 2016.
  2. Csiszar, S., Meyer, D., Egeghy, P., Price, P., Scanlon, K., Tan, C., Thomas, K., Vallero, D., Bare. J., A conceptual framework to extend life cycle assessment using near-field human exposure modeling and high-throughput tools for chemicals.Environmental Science & Technology. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.6b02277.
  3. Solomon. J.D. and Vallero, D. Communicating risk and resiliency: Special considerations for rare events. The CIP Report. (2016). July issue.
  4. Vallero, D. Gehin, E. and Skelton, B. Air pollution control and waste management. Process Safety and Environmental Protection.2016. 101(1).doi
  5. Wood, M.D, Plourde, K., Larkin, S., Egeghy, P.P., Williams, A., Zemba, V., Linkov, I. and Vallero, D.A. Advances on a Decision Analytic Approach to Exposure-Based Chemical Prioritization. Risk Analysis (Submitted)
  6. Wroble, J., Frederick, T., Frame, A. and Vallero, D. Air Pollution Monitoring Changes to Accompany the Transition from a Control to a Systems Focus. PloS one (Cleared for submission).
  7. Kimbrough, S., Hays, M., Preston, W., Vallero, D., and Hagler, G. Episodic impacts from California wildfires identified in Las Vegas near-road air quality monitoring. Environmental Science & Technology. Jan 5;50(1):18-24. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b05038. Epub 2015 Dec 16.
  8. Vallero, D.  Viewpoint: Closing the exposure gap. Environmental Science & Technology. 2014, 48(24), 14075−14076. (2014). doi 10.1021/es505678p.
  9. Isaacs, K. Glen, G. Egeghy, P., Goldsmith, M., Smith, L., Vallero, D., Brooks, R., Grulke, C, and Özkaynak, H.  SHEDS-HT: An Integrated probabilistic exposure model for prioritizing exposures to chemicals with near-field and dietary sources. Environmental Science & Technology,48(21): 12750-12759. (2014). doi 10.1021/es502513w.
  10. Vallero, D. and Isukapalli, S. Simulating real-world exposures during emergency events: Studying effects of indoor and outdoor releases in the Urban Dispersion Program In upper Manhattan, New York. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology.(May 2014): 24(3): 279-289. doi:10.1038/jes.2013.
  11. Vallero, D. Ethics and Air Pollution in the 21st Century: Biomedical and Environmental Perspectives. Ethics in Biology, Engineering and Medicine: An International Journal, 4(3):241-252.doi: 10.1615/EthicsBiologyEngMed.2014010850
  12. Goldsmith M-R., Grulke C.M., Brooks R.D., Transue T.R., Tan Y.M., Frame A., Egeghy P.P., Edwards R., Chang D.T., Tornero-Velez R., Isaacs K., Wang A., Johnson J., Holm K., Reich M., Mitchell J., Vallero, D.A., Phillips L., Phillips M., Wambaugh J.F., Judson R.S., Buckley T.J.and Dary C.C. Development of a consumer product ingredient database for chemical exposure screening and prioritization. Food and Chemical Toxicology. (December 2013). 65C:269-279. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2013.12.029.
  13. Mitchell, J., Collier, Z.A., Pabon, N., Egeghy, P., Cohen Hubal, E.A., Linkov, I. and Vallero, D.A. A decision analytic approach to exposure-based chemical prioritization. PLOS One. 8(8): 1-13. e70911(August 2013). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070911.
  14. Mitchell-Blackwood, J., Arnot, J. Jolliet, O., Egeghy, P., Georgopolous, P., Isukapalli, S., Wambaugh, J., Cohen-Hubal and Vallero, D. Comparison of models to prioritize chemicals based on exposure potential. Science of the Total Environment. 458:555-567. (August 2013).
  15. Wambaugh, J.F., Setzer, R.W., Reif, D.M., Gangwal, S., Mitchell-Blackwood, J.  Arnot, J.A., Joliet, O., Frame, A.,  Rabinowitz, J.R., Knudsen, T.B., Judson, R.S., Egeghy, P., Vallero, D.A., and Cohen Hubal, E.A. High throughput models for exposure-based chemical prioritization in the ExpoCast project. Environmental Science & Technology. 47: 8479-8488 (June 2013) doi:10.1021/es400482g.
  16. Isaacs, K., McCurdy, T., Glen, G., Graham, S., Nysewander, M., Errickson, A., Forbes, S., Graham, S., McCurdy, L., Smith, L., Tulve, N., and Vallero, D.  Statistical properties of longitudinal time-activity data for use in human exposure modeling. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology.(2013). doi:10.1038/jes.2012.94.
  17. Vallero, D. and Letcher, T. Engineering communication: Lessons learned from environmental disasters. Leadership and Management and Engineering. 12 (4): 199–209 (October 2012). doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)LM.1943-5630.0000199.
  18. Vallero, D. and Lioy, P. The 5-R’s: Reliable post-disaster exposure assessment. Leadership and Management and Engineering. 12 (4):  247-253 (October 2012). doi:10.1061/(ASCE)LM.1943-5630.0000200
  19. Kimbrough, S., Bauldauf, R.W., Hagler, G.S.W., Shores, R.C., Mitchell, W.A, Whitaker, D.A, Croghan, C.W. and Vallero, D.A. Long-term continuous measurement of near-road air pollution in Las Vegas: Seasonal variability in traffic emissions impact on local air quality. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health.6(1):295-305. (2013).doi:10.1007/s11869-012-0171-x 2012.
  20. Grulke, C.M., Goldsmith, R-M and Vallero, D.A. Toward a blended ontology: Applying knowledge systems to compare therapeutic and toxicological nanoscale domains. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology. (2012), Article ID 308381, 9 pp.
  21. Resnik, D.B and Vallero, D.A. Geoengineering: An idea whose time has come? Journal of Earth Science and Climatic Change. (2012).
  22. Egeghy, P. Vallero, D and Cohen-Hubal, E. Exposure-based prioritization of chemicals for risk assessment. Environmental Science & Policy. 14(8):950-964 (December 2011).
  23. Kimbrough, S., Vallero, D.A., Shores, R.C., and Mitchell, W.A. Enhanced, multi-criteria-based site selection to measure mobile source toxic air pollutants. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment. 16(8):586-590 (2011).doi:10.1016/j.trd.2011.07.003
  24. Vallero, D., Reintegrating the ethics of engineering and medicine. International Journal of Medical Implants and Devices. 5 (1): 21-22 (2011).
  25. Vallero, D. The new bioethics: Reintegration of environmental and biomedical sciences. Ethics in Biology, Engineering and Medicine. 2 (1). 269-271 (2011). doi:10.1615/EthicsBiologyEngMed.v1.i4.30.
  26. Lioy, P. and Vallero, D. The scientific method in an era of advocacy. Ethics in Biology, Engineering and Medicine. 2 (1). 293-318 (2011). doi:10.1615/EthicsBiologyEngMed.v1.i4.70.
  27. J. Richmond-Bryant, S.S. Isukapalli, and D.A. Vallero. Air pollutant retention within a complex of urban street canyons. Atmospheric Environment.45: 7612-7618 (2011). doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.11.003.
  28. Vallero, D. and James, D. Comparison of pedagogies to address the macroethics of nanobiotechnologies. Ethics in Biology, Engineering and Medicine. 1(3): 155-177 (2010).
  29. Vallero, D.A. Kominsky, J.R., Beard, M.E. and Crankshaw, O.S. Comparison of chrysotile asbestos collection efficiencies on mixed-cellulose ester filters. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. 6 (1): 62-72 (2009).
  30. Vallero, D.A. and Beard, M.E. Selecting appropriate measurement and analytical methods to characterize asbestos exposures. Practice Periodical of Hazardous, Toxic and Radioactive Waste Management. 13 (2): 249-260 (2009).
  31. Vallero, D. Macroethics and engineering leadership. Leadership and Management and Engineering. 8 (4): 287-296 (2008).
  32. Vallero, D. and Brasier, C. Teaching green engineering: The case of ethanol life cycle analysis.Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society. 28 (3): 236-243 (2008).
  33. Kimbrough, S., Vallero. D., Shores, R., Vette, A., Black, K. and Martinez, V. Multi-criteria decision analysis for the selection of a near road ambient air monitoring site for the measurement of mobile source air toxics. Transportation Research, Part D: Transport and Environment. 13 (8): 505-515. (2008).doi:
  34. Vallero, D.A., Cho, K.D., and Peirce, J.J. Modeling toxic compounds from nitric oxide emission measurements. Atmospheric Environment. 43 (2): 253-261 (2008), doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.09.062.
  35. Georgopoulos, P.G. Sasso, A.L. Isukapalli, S., Lioy, P.J. Vallero, D.A., Okino, M. and Reiter, L.  Response to ‘‘µg/kg-day or µg/day? A commentary on Georgopoulos et al., JESEE 2008’’ Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 18. 536-537 (2008).
  36. Rodes, C.E., Pellizzari, E.D., Dellarco, M.J., Erickson, M.D., Vallero, D.A., Reismann, D.B., Lioy, P.J., Lippmann, M., Burke, T.A., and Goldstein, B.D. International Society of Exposure Analysis 2007 Panel:  Integration of better exposure characterizations into disaster preparedness for responders and the public. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology.18 (6). 541-550 (2008). doi: 10.1038/jes.2008.42.
  37. Georgopoulos, P.G. Sasso, A.L. Isukapalli, S., Lioy, P.J. Vallero, D.A., Okino, M. and Reiter, L.Reconstructing population exposures to environmental chemicals from biomarkers: Challenges and opportunities.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology.19(2). 149-171. (2009). doi: 10.1038/jes.2008.9.
  38. Vallero, D.A. Beyond responsible conduct in research: New pedagogies to address macroethics of nanobiotechnologies. Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants. 17(1): 1-12 (2007).
  39. Lioy, P., Vallero, D., Foley, G., Georgopoulos, P., Heiser, J., Watson, T., Reynolds, M. Daloia, J., Tong, S., and Isukapalli, S. A personal exposure study employing scripted activities and paths in conjunction with atmospheric releases of perfluorocarbon tracers in Manhattan, New York, Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology. 17: 409–425 (2007).
  40. Lobscheid, A.B., McKone, T.E., and Vallero, D.A. Exploring relationships between outdoor air particulate-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and PM2.5: A case study of benzo(a)pyrene in California metropolitan regions. Atmospheric Environment. 41: 5659–5672 (2007).
  41. Vallero, D., Laursen, T., Lenoir, T., Clark, R. and Reichert, W. Beyond responsible conduct: Macroethics of Nanobiotechnology. International Journal of Medical Implants and Devices. 2 (1): 15 (2007).
  42. Vallero, D. and Vesilind, P. Preventing disputes with fairness and empathy. Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice. 132 (3): 272-278 (2006).doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)1052-3928(2006)132:3(272).
  43. Laursen, T., Vallero, D., Lenoir, T., Clark, R. and Reichert, W. The next stage of responsible conduct: Macroethics of nanobiotechnology research. International Journal of Medical Implants and Devices. 2 (1): 14-15. 2007.
  44. Reckhow, K., DiGuilio, R., Babendreier, J. and Vallero, D. Comparing the utility of multimedia models for human and ecologic exposure analysis: Two cases. Epidemiology. 17(6):S133-S134 (November 2006).
  45. McKone, T., Riley, W., Maddalena, R., Rosenbaum, R. and Vallero, D. Common issues in human and ecosystem exposure assessment: The significance of partitioning, kinetics, and uptake at biological exchange surfaces. Epidemiology. 17(6):S134 (November 2006).
  46. Vallero, D. Factors in the geotropospheric flux of semivolatile organic compounds. Environmental Engineering Science. 22 (1): 109-125, 2005.
  47. Vette, A., Seila, R., Swartz, E., Pleil, J., Webb, L., Landis, M., Huber, A. and Vallero, D., Air pollution measurements in the vicinity of the World Trade Center, Environmental Management: Air and Waste Management Association. February issue: 23-26 (2004).
  48. Swartz, E., Stockburger, L. and Vallero, D. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons and other semi-volatile organic compounds collected in New York City in response to the events of 9/11. Environmental Science and Technology. 37 (16): 3537-46 (2003).
  49. Vallero, D. Teachable moments and the tyranny of the syllabus: The September eleventh case. Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education. 129 (2), 100-105 (2003).
  50. Vallero, D., Banks, Y., and Leovic, K., Innovative approaches to human exposure assessment in environmental justice communities, Proceedings of the 2002 National Conference on Environmental Science and Technology, Greensboro, North Carolina, September 8-10, 2002, G. Uzochukwu, K. Schimmel, G. Reddy, S-Y. Chang and V. Kabadi, (Editors), article refereed and peer reviewed, Battelle Press, Columbus, Ohio, 371-386 (2003).
  51. Lioy, P., Weisel, C., Millette, J. Eisenreich, S., Vallero, D., Offenberg, J., Buckley, B., Turpin, B., Zhong, M., Cohen, M., Prophete, C., Yang, I., Stiles, R., Chee, G., Johnson, W., Alimokhtari, S. Weschler, C., and Chen, L. Characterization of the dust/smoke aerosol that settled east of the World Trade Center (WTC) in Lower Manhattan after the collapse of the 11 September 2001. Environmental Health Perspectives. 110 (7): 703-714 (2002).
  52. Vallero, D. and Peirce, J. Transformation and transport of vinclozolin from soil to air. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 128 (3): 261-26 (2002).
  53. Vallero, D.A. and Peirce, J.J. Hydrologic conditions affecting tropospheric flux of vinclozolin and its degradation products. Hydrological Science and Technology, 17 (1-4): 371-385 (2001).
  54. Vallero, D., Farnsworth, J., and Peirce, J. Degradation and migration of vinclozolin in sand and soil. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 127 (10): 952-957, 2001.
  55. Walker, K., Vallero, D.A., and Lewis, R.G. Factors influencing the distribution of Lindane and other hexachlorocyclohexanes in the environment. Environmental Science and Technology, 33: 4373-4378, 1999.
  56. Vallero, D.A., Human and ecological assessment methodologies: an overview, in NATO ASI Series, Partnership Subseries, 2. Environment – Vol. 8, Urban Air Pollution, DiSantis, F. and Alligrini, I. (Eds.); Springer-Verlag: Berlin Heidelberg, 1996, 449-466. ISBN: 9783540607076